leaders and the African Union MUST NOT BE AFRAID to unite as one nation and
declare themselves a United States of Africa.
July 5, 2007 - Web posted at 9:09:36 GMT
leaders plan union
- African leaders have agreed to speed up the economic and political
integration of their continent to pursue the goal of a United States of
Africa, but they gave themselves more time to study how to achieve it.
The decision was
announced close to midnight on Tuesday after an African Union summit in
the Ghanaian capital Accra.
It represented a compromise after three days of sometimes heated
debate between a few leaders who wanted to set up a continental African
government immediately, and others who favoured a more gradual,
"We emerge from the debate with a common vision in principle for
the realisation of a union government," Ghanaian President John
Kufuor said in his summing up of the summit's work.
"We all have a shared vision of a united, vibrant continental
union," he said.
The summit agreed to set up a committee of AU ministers to study how
the establishment of a federated African state stretching from the Cape
to Cairo, under a single union government, would affect national
sovereignties and existing regional economic blocs.
It would also consider a 'road map' and timeframe for the
construction of a United States of Africa that would be included in a
report to be presented to the next summit of the 53-nation African Union
to be held in January.
The decision was a setback for at least two leaders, Libya's Muammar
Gaddafi and Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade, who had publicly
advocated the immediate formation of a continental government.
Thursday July 5, 10:25 AM
Reality bites for United States of Africa dream after summit
The drive towards forging a United States of Africa was running out of steam
Wednesday as leaders filed away from a summit without agreeing on a timeline for
creating a new government for the continent.
The three-day summit in Ghana, which wrapped up shortly before midnight on
Tuesday, was devoted to a grand debate on a union government with burning issues
such as Darfur and Somalia barely getting a look in.
But when host President John Kufuor delivered a closing declaration, it was
clear that leaders who favour a gradual approach towards integration had stymied
the fast-track ambitions of Libya's Moamer Kadhafi and Senegal's Abdoulaye Wade.
In the absence of any timetable, Kufuor announced an audit of the current
executive body, the African Union commission, and the commissioning of four
studies on the prospects of a new government.
"Africa shall evolve," he told journalists. "It's not a
revolution we are invoking so we cannot give you a timeline."
One of the studies will focus on "the contents of the union government
concept and its relations with national governments" while another will
examine its "domains of competence and impact ... on sovereignty".
The others will concentrate on the "elaboration of a road map and
timeframe for establishing the union government" and how such a project
would be funded.
The scope of the topics under review illustrate the lack of consensus among
leaders of the world's poorest continent on how they want to move forward.
While many paid lip service to the idea of an alternative USA, few went along
with Kadhafi's blueprint for the creation of a 15-member cabinet -- including
defence, foreign and trade ministers -- by 2008.
For all the talk of unity, analysts believe differences among the 53 nations
are too vast to accommodate a centralised executive which could speak with one
"The United States of Africa has immense emotional appeal but as a
political programme it does not have an enormous amount of traction," said
Terence Corrigan of the South African Institute of International Affairs in
"Among countries like South Africa there's a realisation, which they are
reluctant to express too loudly, that you have a big gulf in terms of economic
development and political cultures which militates against the rush towards a
"You also have the competing tradition within Africa that the notion of
sovereignty is a very powerful one."
Indeed, in an echo of the arguments within the European Union, many heads of
state expressed fears about sovereignty.
In an address to the summit on Tuesday, EU commission president Jose Manuel
Barroso said Europe's experience was political integration came after and not
before economic integration.
Kadhafi arrived in Accra after stopovers in some of Africa's most
impoverished countries such as Guinea and Sierra Leone, calling for "the
voice of the people to be heard.
The shortcomings of the AU, established five years ago in Durban, have been
exposed by its failure to persuade anyone bar Uganda to send peacekeepers to
Somalia and the inability of a poorly-equipped force to stem the bloodshed in
Sudan's western Darfur region.
Many leaders, including Mbeki who hosted the Durban summit, believe the AU
needs nurturing rather than a complete overhaul.
Much of its troubles have stemmed from a lack of finance. An eve of summit
meeting of foreign ministers was handed a report which showed only seven states
were up-to-date with their dues.
Ludeki Chweya, a lecturer at the University of Nairobi, said many leaders
want to give the AU more time to prove its worth.
"I think there's scepticism among some leaders because the matter has
come up too suddenly," he said. "It seems to me that it was a bit
United States of Africa? Not yet, say
July 04 2007 at 08:45AM
By Pascal Fletcher
Accra - African leaders have vowed to speed up the economic and
political integration of their continent to pursue the goal of a United
States of Africa, but they also agreed to study more closely how to
The decision, announced close to midnight on Tuesday, followed three
days of often heated debate at an African Union summit in the Ghanaian
capital Accra that overran its scheduled closing time by half a day.
It represented a face-saving compromise between some leaders who wanted
to set up a continental African government immediately, and others who
favoured a more gradual, step-by-step approach.
"Clearly, we're not there yet. it's a step forward but we're still
a long way off," Liberian President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf told
The decision to take six more months to study the implications and
timing of the proposed creation of a federated African state stretching
from the Cape to Cairo was a setback for at least two leaders, Libya's
Muammar Gaddafi and Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade.
Arguing that Africa, the world's poorest continent, needed to speak and
act as one in a globalised world, they had publicly advocated the
immediate formation of a continental government.
They did this in the face of the more gradualist approach of presidents
from southern and east Africa.
The summit host, Ghanaian President John Kufuor, sought to play down the
divisions that had emerged at the meeting.
"The debate has not been about winners and losers, a majority or a
minority, the 'instantists' or the 'gradualists'," he said in his
"We emerge with a common vision in principle for the realisation of
a union government. We all have a shared vision of a united, vibrant
continental union," said Kufuor.
Gaddafi and Wade were not in their seats in the conference hall when the
closing Accra Declaration was read to reporters.
While affirming the need to accelerate economic and political
integration, the document said a committee of AU ministers would study
how a continental union under a single government would affect national
sovereignties and existing regional economic blocs.
The committee would also consider a "road map" and timeframe
for the construction of a United States of Africa that would be included
in its report to be presented to the next summit of the 53-nation AU in
The decision for more study reflected the cautious position of leaders
like South African President Thabo Mbeki, who had recommended
strengthening existing regional economic communities before any setting
up of a continental union and government.
"Excellent, I'm very happy," Mbeki said when asked how he
viewed the result of the summit.
Kufuor testily rebuffed reporters' questions about how long it could
take before a United States of Africa was formed and what kind of
government it would have.
"It is not something we can tell beforehand. Africa shall
evolve," he said, adding this would be the subject of the study.
But Kufuor said Africa in its drive for continental unity would not
strive to copy the models of the United States of America or the
"We want to do a custom-made thing, something to suit the unique
attributes of our continent," he said.
Yeah, Kwame Nkrumah was the first one who envisioned a united Africa. And
this idea of a continental government for Africa has its roots well firmed
during the independence era 50 odd years ago.
And now this fully-fledged tree of unity and oneness seems to be taking an
appropriate shape. It’s now Libya’s flamboyant Colonel Muammar Gaddafi
busy beating the same US of Africa drum, championing the cause and mobilizing
support with his pan-African road show that recently swept through West
Ghana’s capital is filling up with the great and the good (and the not so
great and not so good) for the African Union summit.
But doesn’t it all sound like “Plenty of talk - but what action?”
syndrome? There’s always a huge build up and some excitement, as well as a
great deal of cynicism, before these summits.
If Africa is still trying to resolve the basic problems, like the summit
organizers are still discreetly having to separate two Horn of Africa
neighbors, two enemies namely Eritrea and Ethiopia, what hope then for a
United States of the continent, speaking with one voice to the world? What
about a little African unity first?
Illustrious Africans, such as the veteran anti-apartheid campaigner and
legendary trumpeter, Hugh Masekela, joined forces with civil society activists
in Accra, to say Africa must first deal with its crises and conflicts. The
United States of Africa comes later.
It seems most African Union countries are not ready to rush headlong into
the creation of a continental government just yet. But that’s the top item
on the agenda in Accra.
And, one may even look forward to an expected debate as to who then would
become that first President of Africa?
Will this idea of one government, one army, one everything for the
continent, fly? Let’s wait and watch!
United States of Africa? Summit to debate the
POSTED: 9:26 a.m. EDT, June 28, 2007
• African Union meets this weekend in Ghana to address continental
• Leaders face pleas for urgent action on Darfur, Somalia and enduring
• Summit billed as tribute to Ghana's late first president, driving force
of united Africa
• Sceptics of united Africa point to decades of division; wars, coups,
Adjust font size:
ACCRA, Ghana (Reuters) -- African leaders meet this weekend to
debate a grand plan for a continental government, but they face pleas for
urgent action now to halt conflicts in Darfur and Somalia and tackle enduring
A summit of the 53-nation African Union starting in Ghana on Sunday has at
the top of its agenda a "Grand Debate" on creating a United States
of Africa and a federal government to rule it -- a long-held dream of
supporters of Pan-African integration.
Organizers are billing the three-day Accra summit as a tribute to Ghana's
first post-independence president, Kwame Nkrumah, who became the standard
bearer of Pan-African unity when he took over from British colonial rule a
half century ago.
But sceptics doubt the practicality of a federal government for Africa
after decades of wars, coups and massacres that often reflect ethnic and
religious fault lines criss-crossing a vast continent artificially carved up
by former colonial rulers.
While most Africans embrace the vision of a united, resource-rich continent
of 800 million people able to speak with one voice to the world, campaigners
say AU leaders must tackle more pressing problems at their doorstep.
"Darfur should be on the agenda, because it's really, really
urgent," said Oury Traore, regional program manager for the West African
Network for Peacebuilding (WANEP), a non-governmental organization that
promotes conflict resolution.
Traore's group wants the AU to make its top priority the protection of
civilians in Sudan's western Darfur region, where more than 200,000 people
have been killed in a conflict pitting Sudanese forces and allied militias
against local rebels.
"We shouldn't allow room for this kind of insanity any more, in any
state," she said.
Civil society groups urged AU leaders to act now to bring peace to Somalia
by pressing for a political solution there, and some also urged them to look
at Zimbabwe, where President Robert Mugabe is accused of crushing opponents
and ruining the economy.
Organizers defend agenda despite calls to address Darfur
But summit organizers defend the single-item agenda, and deny the plan for a
continental government is too ambitious.
"Yes, we have serious problems, people are dying in places like Darfur
and Somalia. But people are dying elsewhere in the world, not just in
Africa," Ghana's Foreign Minister Nana Akufo Addo said.
Addo said a continent that pooled its resources and spoke with one voice
would command greater respect in the world and help Africa shake off the
indignity of always being portrayed as a byword for chaos and poverty.
"In the last 20 or 30 years we have a continent that has been
bedevilled by conflict of one sort or another, vast migration of many of our
young people. That is the Africa we want to stop," he said.
Leaders disagree on timeline for united Africa
But he recognized disagreements among the AU heads of state about how
quickly a federal United States of Africa should be created and how it should
While some leaders like Libya's Muammar Gaddafi and Senegalese President
Abdoulaye Wade are vocal advocates of a continental government, others, like
South African President Thabo Mbeki, are believed to favor a more gradual
Gaddafi, who often wears clothes emblazoned with the outline of the African
continent, has travelled to the summit by land, drumming up support for his
unifying vision, which includes a plan to create a 2-million strong African
He says Africans will only win respect if they act as a single continent --
a view shared by Nkrumah's son Sekou.
"I think ideally it should be a continental government. The problem is
not how we get there, it is that we get there," Sekou Nkrumah told
June - 3 July, 2007-9 th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the African
Union, Accra, Ghana The Summit will be devoted to a “Grand Debate on the
Union Government”. Events 25-26 June : 14 th Ordinary Session of the
Permanent Representatives Committee (PRC) 28-29 June : 11 th Ordinary Session of the Executive Council 1-3 July: 9 th Ordinary Session of the Assembly Media
Accreditation Form | more
A United Nations of Africa
The Assembly of Heads of State and Government
of the African Union, at its 8th ordinary session in Addis Ababa from 29-30
January, 2007, decided that the next ordinary session of the Assembly to be held
in Accra, Ghana in July, 2007, will be devoted to a “Grand Debate on the Union
Government.” In the same vein, the Executive Council of the African Union will
hold a retreat of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs in Durban, South Africa from
8-9 May, 2007 to brainstorm on the state of the union, which is to the same
effect as the Grand Debate.
for USAfrica: The Coalition for African Unification…
Hear the "Ballad of The United
States of Africa" in Real Audio performed by The Wood Brothers: Click
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Our Mission is ALMOST
accomplished as The African Union Summit to be held this July 2007 in Accra,
Ghana has as it's sole agenda item: The Formation of a United States of Africa!
THIS is THE
Moment of the start of a New African History and we are depending on THESE
leaders to put aside their fears and doubts and for the 1st time in their
political careers, to actually LEAD the African people to a new era...
As the world press at large have finally caught on to the
fact that Africa CAN unite this July into a united federation of
nation-states, the main thing they want to report on is that Africans are
feeling doubt on following through on their greatest opportunity.
words, they are afraid to save themselves and join together as one nation. That
they would rather debate and argue among themselves as they always have done
throughout history than dare to see a vision of a united Africa and take
advantage the opportunity act on it.
you, if the African leaders do not take heed and insure the destiny of all
Africans by taking the step to unify this July...
they will NEVER have this opportunity again in their history.
give up on itself and the self imposed destruction of the remainder of Africa
will speed up exponentially.
found a new piggy bank in the form of China and will put it's collective self in
hock again to a new master after the G-8 nations forgave most of their debt and
opened the door of opportunity for the nations of Africa to unite as one
Africa will not need to borrow, it will create it's own economy in the building
of it's united infrastructure, payment of taxes to the new national treasury
from the nations currently stealing it's resources who will now have to pay fair
market value and attract investment from around the world because a united
Africa is a sound business proposition and opportunity.
on: 23-Mar-2007: AU Summit to consider
‘United States of Africa’
A major proposition of whether Africa will need to form a United
States of Africa in the bid to promote greater integration will be on the table
when Ghana hosts the African Union Summit in July.
The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Nana Akufo-Addo who announced the subject in
his briefing of Parliament about the upcoming summit, said there will be need to
consider the issue.
The proposal is to run Africa federally as pertains in the United States of
AU members states have been asked to deliberate on the issue ahead of the summit
and to come up with steps needed to be taken to reach the goal. Ghana’s
Parliament will debate the matter in May.
The Accra Summit will also seek to address the composition of the AU Executive
and a replacement for Alpha Konare who has indicated he intends to step down as
a AU Presient.
The African Peer Review Mechanism will also be on the menu of the summit and the
unresolved business of pockets of conflicts in parts of the continent.
Support the movement by putting the WORD out. When people
see you in United States of Africa apparel, engage them on the matter and have
THEM join US as well... See:
At this point The USA4USAfrica is seeking
an African Corporation, Businessman, Media Company or group of individuals who
can order 100,000 or more United States of Africa shirts, buttons, hats, or any
combination to distribute to people in Africa's largest cities and particularly
Accra, Ghana before the upcoming African Summit this July where the sole agenda
item is the formation of a United States of Africa. This show of solidarity for
a united Africa will hopefully find enough people photographed in the attire and
thus appear in the major media that up to this point still refuse to give any
coverage or press releases on the unification of Africa in major media
publications ( except the BBC and Vanity Fair Magazine).
We ask you to support our efforts by visiting http://unitedstatesafrica.com
and making any donation you can afford as this coalition is run by an
ordinary U.S. citizen who is personally lobbying government leaders, major
media editors and news organizations and like minded coalitions worldwide
via the Internet, fax and phone.
Despite our limited resources we have been able to
lobby the African Union members and media sources throughout Africa to
bring about the upcoming summit this July in Accra, Ghana where the sole
agenda item is the formation of a United States of Africa, so our effect
on the unification of Africa is well documented in any search engine on
the subject of the United States of Africa, African unification and a
A search on “United States of Africa, Mark Wood”
dates our efforts to unite Africa as one nation to our beginning in 1996.
i.e. ( Yahoo.com )
A.U. Leaders Contemplate a
United States of Africa
[Opinion] The E.U. success
story a possible inspiration for proposed federation
Africa is now in the spotlight like never before, with
one very crucial concern of policy makers the world over being how to make
the make the continent competitive with others.
Although the retardation of growth in the continent can be blamed on both
external and internal factors, it's the latter that call for greater
scrutiny. With all the countries in the continent now independent, it goes
without saying that they have since then had the yam and the knife in
their own hands to dictate their own policies. But instead, they chose to
rule with an iron fist, misappropriating their own resources in compliance
with foreign exploiters. In fact, Africa has for so long lagged behind
that she has been characterized as the latecomer to development.
After decades of dictatorship and authoritarian rule, it is only now that
the wind of change has begun to blow across the continent, and several
countries are beginning to embrace democracy as a system of governance.
It's increasingly becoming more and more possible to change governments
through the ballot box, and moreover, the protection and promotion of
human rights has now become an agenda in static policies as well.
These developments are beginning to be reflected too in issues affecting
pan-Africa. The six-year-old African Union (A.U.) has already been praised
for making a giant step in the right direction by increasing intervention
in African crises, unlike it's defunct predecessor, the Organization of
African Unity (O.A.U.), which was more or less a toothless bull dog. The
A.U. has also grown to become one of the most important actors in
international politics, as well as taking a definite stand on prominent
issues rocking the continent.
In fact, one of the most ambitious projects on the table right now is to
move from the African Union to the "United States Of Africa"
(U.S.A.). The incumbent chairman of the A.U.'s Assembly of Heads of State,
President John Kuffour of Ghana, and chairman of the African Commission,
Malian born Alpha Oumar Konare have already put forward the proposal to
all the 53 members of the organization for reflection before the next
summit this July in the Ghanaian capital of Accra.
"All member states have been asked to critically examine the issue
ahead of the summit and to come up with steps needed to ensure its
Akufo-Addo, Ghana's Minister of Foreign Affairs, whose sitting president
currently chairs the union, recently made the revelation to the Ghanaian
According to the plan, loosely modeled after the United States of America
(U.S.A.), all African countries would henceforth constitute just one
single federal state, with 54 federated states (including Morocco which is
presently not a member of the A.U.). Moreover, all the federated states
would have a single integrated defense force, common currency, and all
other institutions of state. Above all, the whole of Africa would be
transformed into a common market, with no travel restrictions for African
Each African parliament is now expected to debate it before the July
summit. The Ghanaian parliament has already announced that it will begin
debating the issue from its May session.
But just how realistic is this dream?
Realistic or Not?
It is important to reflect on some of the stakes involved in this move to
a United Africa. It should be recalled that this is not the first time
that the option has been put on table. In fact, even before the European
Economic Community (E.E.C.) was born, the Ghanaian nationalist and pioneer
president, Kwame Nkrumah in 1963 had proposed during the pioneer summit of
the Organization of African Unity (O.A.U.) in Addis Ababa, that Africa
should defy the odds of colonialism by constituting itself under one
"Not one of us working singly and individually can successfully
attain the fullest development. Only a united Africa functioning under a
union government can forcefully mobilize the material and moral resources
of our separate countries and apply them efficiently and energetically to
bring a rapid change in the conditions of our people." Nkrumah
But that option was blown aside like a candle in the wind. Why would the
same same countries that rejected unification 43 years ago want to make a
u-turn now? Would such unity be one of strength or weakness? If anything,
I can only say that the last thing that a struggling Africa needs at the
moment is unity in weakness.
But how can unity be ensured in a continent where some of the worst
humanitarian conflicts in places such as Darfur and Somalia are still
The answer may lie in Europe, which is a veritable success story. Before
it could ever become a reality, Europe had been rocked by two bitter world
wars, but the lessons of its successful "unification" has been
that economic integration is the only policy that truly works. Most
African conflicts will ultimately disappear if they suddenly consider
unity as a means, and not as an end. Unity definitely has the potential to
reinforce and accelerate the reaching of ends, provided those ends are not
On a personal note, I suggest that instead of the United States of Africa
(U.S.A.), it should be called the States of United Africa (S.U.A.) to make
a distinction from the current popular acronym U.S.A., which stands for
the United States of America.
If I were to give any further counsel, I would humbly recommend that
Africans hasten this rush to achieve unity on the whole continent. It will
create miracles that the authors themselves never envisaged. Long live the
newfound continent Africa.
I do agree with Mr. Mark Wood
for his comment (below) it is true that if African ... A United
States of Africa can prevent an African apocalypse on the ... www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/
56k - Cached
The concept of a United
States of Africa must immediately be brought into
public debate worldwide and among Africans themselves. Mark
- 268k - Cached
21/04/2007 18:41 - (SA) United States of Africa
– could it work?
AS THE African Union (AU) Summit draws near many Pan-African
commentators are concerned about the outcome.
The sole agenda item for discussion in July is the proposed merger of
all African states into one nation state, to be known as the United States
Although a majority of commentators from Africa and the Black diaspora
advise caution in approaching the proposed merger, there are enthusiasts.
Already, campaigners for the utopian state, notably the Wood brothers
of Greenwood, California, co-founders of the USA4USAfrica lobby, are
painting numerous advantages that await such merger.
On their website, the USAfrica campaigners already display a flag of
the proposed new nation state and even the photograph of former
secretary-general of the United Nations (UN), Kofi Annan, whom they want
“installed” president of the new USAfrica.
USA4Africa’s Mark Wood, comments: “In a United States of Africa,
a citizen could freely travel anywhere on the continent to seek education,
opportunity, commerce, or the simple pleasure of tourist travel within
their vast country.
“A common African currency much like the EU model affords the ability
to buy and sell throughout the continent with a reliable, backed
Furthermore, “much of Africa’s debt could be relieved if freedom
and capitalism were able to thrive in any African state from taxes paid by
companies involved in business in any African location”.
However, in a February forum on the subject of a USAfrica, organised by
the BBC World Service, many Pan-African commentators expressed their
reservations about the merger. In response to the forum’s topic, Is
African unity a dream worth pursuing? , 32 contributors wrote in from 14
countries in Africa, Europe and the Americas.
Two-thirds of them either expressed caution in embracing the concept of
the new Africa, or were downright sceptical about the whole idea.
On the other hand, there were those who showed enthusiasm for the
project, with no concern for its pitfalls.
Writing in from Khartoum, Sudan, John Moi, while drawing attention to
the situation in his own country, raised the fundamental question of the
identity crisis that has continually plagued the continent, of who an
African really is.
“A majority of people will accept that the question of who is an
African is still problematic. Culturally, the guys in North Africa,
including our own Sudan, consider themselves Arabs,” Moi explained.
He added: “In secondary school days we learned about the map of
the Arab world to really emphasis that my country belongs to that part of
“Pan-Africanism and Pan-Arabism oppose each other to the effect that
North Africans have very little to do with the rest of sub-Saharan Africa.
We cannot subscribe to the idea of United States of Africa without
answering this genuine identity question in clear terms.”
But Dennis Turner of Middlesex, England, thought otherwise.
He prescribed unity as the only panacea for the survival of Africans:
“It’s time Africa united. With Africans putting aside selfishness and
greed, religious, tribal and cultural differences, a united Africa would
be one of the most powerful states on earth.
“Otherwise, I foresee an extinction of the African race purely
because of selfishness and greed.”
But how could the ideal of African unity be attained without addressing
the very fundamental human problems pointed out by the sceptics, by purely
dreaming, without a concrete plan of action?
On a cautious note, Clement Kuol Biong of Mahe in the Seychelles
referred to this anecdote: “A veteran Sudanese politician once compared
the Sudan Socialist Union of Jaafar Numeiri’s rule to a shadow of a tree
where we come just to share the shade but what each person under the tree
is thinking about is not necessarily the same.
“So how can Africa be united when we are still tribally fragmented
and no African leader is interested in uniting his own people? How can
African unity become a dream come true when different groupings of the AU
have their own hidden agendas?”
He concluded: “The Arabs have never stopped their dream of imposing
Islam culture on African masses by the sword, a practice which is still
widespread in Sudan.”
However, despite the caution and concerns raised by well-meaning Pan-Africanists
about the feasibility of a United States of Africa, the continent’s
leaders, it would seem, are determined to ignore the dangerous pitfalls.
It would be recalled that on January 31, African leaders at the Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia, summit adopted as the sole agenda item for discussion at
the forthcoming Accra summit the theme A n AU Government: Towards the
United States of Africa.
The proposal was referred to the heads of state and governments of the
AU by President Abdoulaye Wade of Senegal – who was absent at the
Wade’s proposal was carried to the summit and presented on his behalf
by that country’s foreign minister, Cheikh Tidiane Gadio, with the
support of Nigeria.
According to Gadio, “President Wade suggested that the heads of state
seize the opportunity offered by their next summit in Accra to devote a
special session to the issue of the United States of Africa”, while
adding that it is necessary to prepare a new roadmap to better determine
the next steps to be taken.
By proceeding without a known and public mandate from the people of
Africa and, especially, by drawing attention only to what they naively
consider the potential benefits of USAfrica, and by trying to restrict
their town hall discussions to implementation alone, the promoters are
behaving like a used car salesman who doesn’t want the customer to raise
awkward questions about faulty aspects of the car.
However, the issues raised suggest that it is time for Africans to wake
up and do the hard thinking and ask – and honestly answer – the tough
questions we have avoided for 50 years about the sanity of unifying
Africans and Arabs under one continental government.
For example, why is a USAfrica necessary? What problems will it solve
that the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) could not and the AU cannot?
Who are the shadowy godfathers of this project and what is their hidden
The forum comments indicate that many ordinary Africans are doing some
of this hard thinking.
The AU presidents should follow suit and do, and be seen to do, the
same. They should not rush to implement this shady project before they and
the public have, together, thought things through and in the greatest
There was no popular debate before the formation of the AU and the
adoption of the New Partnership for Africa’s Development by Africa’s
presidents. Will there be a full and free debate before this USAfrica
project proceeds any further? Will the promoters, seen and unseen, of this
USAfrica, allow it?
Regardless of the promoters, let us all debate it, every aspect of it,
not just how to implement it. Let us all debate the merits and demerits of
continental government and do so for the next five years, or till we
arrive at an enlightened consensus.
Let us debate it in light of black people’s experience in Sudan,
Mauritania and the rest of the Afro-Arab borderlands – and in light of
the four decades of the OAU and AU, too.
Let the summit on it be postponed for at least five years while the
people debate it.
Before we, the African people, instruct the AU presidents on how to
vote, let us examine the motives, objectives, sponsors – overt, as well
as covert – modalities and feasibility of this USAfrica and do so in the
context of what Africa needs to survive and prosper in this century.
Okafor is a journalist/artist/cartoonist. He was, until January 14 this
year, art director of the Sun Newspapers in Nigeria
The challenge for the next generation of
African people who are nationalists, pan-africanists, African-centered thought
and others on the fringe of such thinking is to move beyond the pathological rhetoric
of what African people should be doing to what am I doing?
Hear the original song November 18th 2020 in Real Audio :
Clearly for those from 18 years of age to those in their forties there are
possibilities that did not exist for those who came before them at the
international level. Access to global Pan-African processes use to take a
great deal of effort and financial discipline. Now at the push of a button
this generation can be in direct contact with other African people in other
parts of the world.
Yet even this generation is suffering from problem of
terminal uniqueness. In other words it is assumed that the rest of the African
world sits around waiting to read what our scholars have to say or waits to hear
what our organizations think. The reality is that the rest of the African
world doesn't know that we exist simply because there is not enough
cross-pollination taking place in the first place.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Clearly this generation must
GO to Africa if they plan on talking about Africa. This generation must TALK to
real groups on the African continent. This generation must BE IN Contact
with Francophone and Anglophone Africa which means it needs to develop its
This generation must become involved, actively, in the
politics of the African Union and developmental groups in Africa. For
every thought that entertains conspiracy theories there must be two
thoughts that participate in political/economic and social structure development
in Africa. The following are only a few websites that connect with Africa
today. To know the African past and have no mastery of the Africa present is
merely another form of self-anesthetizing. Those 18 years of age to 40 are responsible
for the African future whether they want to take responsibility for it or not.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
USA for USAfrica coalition for
States of Africa
Message - The Movie
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
This or This
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
This or This
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
"There are no words to describe what I feel about the
possibility of the achievement of The United States of Africa. The applause of
the entire globe could not give this cause justice, and justice is what this
cause will bring. I am sure that the US of Africa will mean the extinction of
poverty and the promotion of world Unity. I know the day will come when its
constitution is signed. It will be signed not with greed and power in mind, but
instead with love and unity. My prayers and deepest salutations are with you
all." – Jared
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
It is frightening to know that the behavior Ancestor Garvey described below is still
applicable today. It also adds to the explanation of why we are in the condition we are in today.
There is enough wealth among all of the professional athletes of African descent in every sport
to underwrite each independent African school ten times over.
There are enough Hip Hop artists of African descent to do fundraisers for every
nation building organization in addition to joining them to revolutionize the political direction of African
American youth to one of global revolutionary nation
There are enough independently wealthy African American lawyers who could join such
organizations, providing them with the legal counsel necessary to empower their work. Such individuals have more personal
wealth than they know what to do with which goes to buying cars, homes, and celebrating themselves with
extravagant parties as professional agents direct them to make themselves marketable to white society at
the expense of empowering Black people.
It is not enough to give out scholarships, cars or makeovers. All people have the legal right to do whatever they want to with
the wealth they accumulate but time and history are not kind to those who should have done more and avoided
the responsibility. When the white world is no longer interested in them, what they have done for their people
will determine who takes care of them as their suns set.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Note: While this article is dated it is still important as it examines the world of Hip Hop, the message of Hip Hop and the messangers of Hip Hop. Hip Hop is composed of two dynamics. There is the vehicle of music and the message that is contained in its images and lyrics. The emergence of Hip Hop has been created by a generation projecting plenty of smoke but little fire.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
The smoke has threatened something different but the fire has amounted to little intensity simply because it has been fueled more by ignorance and self-centeredness. Hip Hop has been the manifestation of children caught up in self-indulgence and overcompensation for feelings of personal poverty. Therefore it has lacked any kind of
revolutionary message that would speak truth to power. While it has always had the potential, that potential has never been reached.
Even the messages that might speak to liberation have usually only been those of self-pity rather than collective social empowerment. Those in the different genres of Hip Hop have attempted to adjust to each other's existence without challenging the validity of each other's messages for fear of potential internal reprisals within the group. White male supremacy in the media has promoted mindless Hip Hop at the expense of Revolutionary Hip Hop, and those who have reaped personal profit from mindless Hip Hop have been used to neutralize Revolutionary Hip Hop which explains why we can have a store in Mawali called "Nigger".
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
At some point Revolutionary Hip Hop artists will have to draw a line in the sand with their peers who have become nothing but profitable tools of oppression for white male supremacy.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
In the end if the artists do not check themselves, they will merely reflect a historical image of an "Uncle Tom" gangster, a buffoon clown of sexuality and an image of petty self-indulgence that a generation in the future will come along to brand as worthless to the liberation and self-determination of African people.
Note: We as an African people, especially in the U.S., have
been taught to dissociate from one another to such a degree that while those
African people in the music industry have complete freedom to express themselves
and consider themselves to be on the cutting edge of popular music yet are so
globally ignorant that they miss the constant opportunity to make music with
African people on the continent and in the Caribbean which would revolutionize
hip hop in the cross-pollination of sound and lyrics.
Posted: Wed May 30, 2007 4:27 pm
Post subject: Union Government of Africa (UGA): what a nice vision!!
Africa will be one country and the current 54 national states will be
reduced to the status of only federal states: http://unitedstatesafrica.tripod.com/
The expected process is to forge Africa with:
- one transcontinental citizenship
- one currency
- one defence force
- one foreign department
- one policy of foreign trade
- one centeral government managing the above
- one pan-African parlament
- one African court of law
- univisum = people without border as Africans used to live before 1885
Scramble for Africa
- free from legacy of colonialism such as artificial borders which devided
for eg. Oromos in to two, Tigarus in to two, Afars in to three, Somalis in
to five...etc and slowly forge a working inter-Africa federal states. At
the begining the 54 current African countries will be the federal states
What is the impact for us "Ethiopians"? First Ethiopia will be
one of the federal states and slowly it will be changed to the fact that
national states like Oromia, Tigrai, Amharai, Afar, Somalia ...etc will be
the autonomous federal states in a USAfrica.
So the question to be asked is: why should Amharas cry for centeralization
of Ethiopia and Oromos for secession of Oromia?? Both these movements are
against the movement and policy of forging USAfrica.
I think CUD and OLF leaders who formed AFD are such far-sighted, so that
they agreed to struggle for the common agendas like Freedom and Democracy
giving up their illusion of eg. desmantling Oromia and decolonizing Oromia
Let's all take this vision of AFD and fight against Weyane fascists to
forge first a democratic and integrated Ethiopia with a genuine autonomy
of Oromia, Amharai, Tigrai, Afar, Somali...etc to pave the way for
USAfirca as described above.
Last edited by Meraraw on Fri Jun 01, 2007 7:20 pm; edited 11 times in
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
"All of us may not live to see the higher accomplishment of an African Empire-so strong and powerful, as to compel the respect of mankind, but we in our life-time can so work and act as to make the dream a possibility within another generation."
Marcus Mosiah Garvey
We, the organizers are working under the following
That we are living in a world where the term globalization denotes exploitation
of labor and natural and human resources for the vast majority of the world's
population. For that reason, struggle in Africa finds itself at the world stage.
A local struggle must by necessity locate itself in the global struggle. The
international arena has become the theater of change. Therefore, those serving
change, whether as writers, historians, scholars, and/or political activists in
and for Africa have to be willing to serve, in word and deed, contemporary
struggles against continued marginalization elsewhere.
We are 1 month
away from the formation of a United States of Africa and Africa's leaders and
the African Union MUST NOT BE AFRAID to unite as one nation and declare
themselves a United States of Africa.
The United States of Africa: The challenges
Demba Moussa Dembele (2007-04-04)
Demba Moussa Dembele examines the external and internal challenges faced by
Africa in the face of globalization and the US led war on terror and asks if the
current African leadership is up to building the United States of Africa in the
present global environment.
'Africa must unite or perish!' Kwame Nkrumah
This year marks the 50th anniversary of the independence of Ghana, the first
sub-Saharan African country to break from the dreadful colonial yoke. It was
under the leadership of President Kwame Nkrumah, enlightened, visionary and Pan
Africanist leader, who devoted time and energy to liberating other African
countries. Nkrumah fought tirelessly for the unity of African countries into a
single African Federal State. He was convinced that the newly independent
countries needed to unite to liberate other African countries and lay the ground
for their economic emancipation. He understood that a divided Africa would still
remain under domination and be an easy prey for global capitalism.
It is in part for his vision and far-sightedness that the Anglo-American
imperialism co-opted Ghanaian felons to stage a coup that toppled Nkrumah and
sent him into exile until his death. But Nkrumah’s vision and dream did not
die with him. Quite the contrary: they remained very much alive throughout the
years. As Africa got deeper into crisis, as its external dependence worsened,
bordering on the threat of re-colonization, Nkrumah was largely vindicated while
the proponents of ‘balkanization’ were completely discredited.
An illustration of this is the foundation of the African Union (AU) in 2001 and
the decision of the Heads of State and Government to move toward the United
States of Africa by the year 2015. This is a fitting tribute to the memory of
But the road to realizing this dream faces great hurdles, both externally and
internally. In particular, the current world system, characterized by an
increasing militarization of neoliberal globalization, presents overwhelming
challenges for the African continent.
A) The challenge of globalization
The decision comes at a time when corporate-led globalization has entailed very
high costs for the African continent, as a result of the acceleration of trade
and financial liberalization and privatization of national assets to the benefit
of multinational corporations. Trade liberalization, combined with western
countries’ disguised or open protectionism and subsidies, resulted in the
deterioration of sub-Saharan Africa’s terms of trade. Trade liberalization
alone has cost the region more than $270 billion over a 20-year period,
according to Christian Aid (2005). An illustration of these costs is Ghana,
which lost an estimated $10 billion. According to Christian Aid, it is as if the
entire country had stopped working for 18 months! Capital flight, fuelled by
trade and financial liberalization, has reached alarming proportions, estimated
at more than half of the continent’s illegitimate external debt, according to
the Commission for Africa (2005).
The privatization of State-owned enterprises and public services has resulted in
a massive transfer of the national patrimony to foreign hands, precisely to
western multinational corporations. This, combined with the illegitimate and
unbearable external debt, has deepened external domination and increased the
transfer of wealth from Africa to western countries and multilateral
institutions, as acknowledged by the Commission for Africa (2005), put together
by the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair. And members of the Commission had
reliable sources to back up their claim, since Britain is one of the main
beneficiaries of this transfer of wealth. Quoting a study published in 2006 by
Christian Aid, Archbishop Ndungane (2006) indicated that:
'Britain took away far more money from sub-Saharan Africa than it gave in aid
and debt relief last year, despite pledges to help the region. In all, it took
away £27 billion from Africa. In the 12 months since an annual Group of Eight
(G8) summit in Scotland last July, the British economy gained a net profit of
more than £11 billion ($20.3 billion) from the region. The charity calculated
that almost £17 billion flowed from Britain to sub-Saharan Africa in the past
year, including donations, remittances from salaries earned by Africans in
Britain and foreign direct investments. At the same time, more than £27 billion
went in the opposite direction, thanks to debt repayments, profits made by
British companies in Africa and imports of British goods and capital flight.'
This is just one example of the financial hemorrhage hurting Africa. This is
compounded by the ‘brain drain’, which has deprived Africa of thousands of
highly trained workers in all fields. The World Health Organization (2006) says
that more than 25% of doctors trained in Africa work abroad in developed
countries. About 30,000 highly skilled Africans leave the continent each year
for the United States and Europe. Still according to Archbishop Ndungane (2006),
in the US alone
'African immigrants are the highest educated class in the range of all
immigrants…there are over 640,000 African professionals in the US, over
360,000 of them hold PhDs, 120,000 of them (from Nigeria, Ghana, Sudan and
Uganda) are medical doctors. The rest are professionals in various fields –
from the head of research for US Space Agency, NASA, to the highest paid
material science professors. ...'
B) The challenge of the US 'War on Terror'
The challenge posed by neoliberal policies to Africa will be aggravated by the
militarization of globalization, with the doctrine of ‘pre-emptive strike’
adopted by the Bush Administration. One of the tragic illustrations of this
doctrine is the illegal aggression and occupation of Iraq with the numerous
crimes against Humanity committed by the occupying forces the world has been
witnessing since the invasion. Another illustration of that doctrine is the
threat of war against other sovereign countries, such as Iran, North Korea or
These aggressions and threats are part of what the US imperialism calls 'war on
terror'. The Bush Administration is attempting to draw African countries into
that strategy, which poses an even greater threat to Africa’s security and
development. Since 2002, the US government has put together a special program,
named “PanSahel”, whose stated objective is to train the armed forces of the
countries involved to enable them to track down groups supposed to be linked to
The recent announcement of the creation of a US military command for Africa -
Africa Command (AfriCom) - is a major step toward expanding and strengthening
the US military presence in Africa through more aggressive policies to enlist
support from African countries for its 'war on terror'. According to George W.
Bush, 'the new command will strengthen our security cooperation with Africa and
create new opportunities to bolster the capabilities of our partners in
In reality, the objectives of the Africa Command are to be found in the US drive
for global dominance and its growing appetite for Africa’s oil. US imperialism
seeks to protect oil supply routes and American multinational corporations
involved in oil and mineral extraction. In fact, several studies have forecast
that the United States may depend for up to 25% of its needs on crude oil from
Africa over the next decade or so. One clear sign of this trend is that several
US oil companies are investing billions of dollars in oil-producing countries,
notably in the Gulf of Guinea region. Thus, oil is one the main driving forces
behind the US activism on the continent. It has nothing to do with Africa’s
‘security’. On the contrary, this is likely to increase the insecurity of
Therefore, the US strategy aims to secure strategic positions in Africa by using
the threat of “terrorism” to gain military facilities and bases to protect
its interests. The countries which accept to cooperate with the US may become
more and more dependent on the US and inevitably on NATO for their
“security”. They will be forced to provide military bases or facilities for
US forces and serve as a canon fodder in the US ‘war on terror’, as Ethiopia
has done in Somalia. The US strategy will sow more divisions among African
countries and undermine the goal of African Unity.
C) Internal challenges
To the challenges posed by the global context described above one should add the
internal challenges facing African countries.
As indicated above, the neoliberal policies imposed by the IMF and World Bank
and the violence of corporate-led globalization have further weakened Africa.
The principal characteristic of the continent is its weakness and divisions,
despite the foundation of the African Union and the adoption of the New
Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). The divisions are ideological
and political. Neo-colonial ties are still strong with former colonial powers.
There are still many foreign military bases and facilities on the continent.
Several countries still depend on western countries for their “security”.
France is intervening in the Central African Republic in an attempt to help the
government push back attacks by rebel groups.
A similar operation took place a few months ago to help the Chadian government
repel a rebel attack that threatened some parts of the capital. These countries
are home to foreign military bases and have signed defense agreements with their
‘protectors’. These military bases are also used to launch criminal
aggressions against other African countries, as the United States did when it
launched air strikes against innocent civilians in Somalia from their air base
in Djibouti! France is using its military bases in West Africa – Senegal and
Togo- to destabilize Cote d’Ivoire.
These examples underscore the vulnerability of the continent and the fragile
nature of many States, some of which have all but collapsed, in large part as a
result of structural adjustment policies. Africa’s vulnerability is also
reflected in the widespread poverty affecting its population, in the
deterioration of the health and educational systems and in the inability of many
States to provide basic social services for their citizens. Poverty is the
result of policies imposed by the IMF and World Bank, using the pretext of the
illegitimate debt with the complicity of African governments. This has
aggravated economic, financial, political dependence on western countries and
multilateral institutions. Food dependency has dramatically increased. According
to the FAO and other UN agencies, more than 43 million Africans suffer from
hunger, which kills more people than HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis
combined! As a result, Africa spends billions of dollars in food imports, paid
for by credits and ‘aid’ from western countries and multilateral
The external dependency and the extreme vulnerability of the continent are also
reflected in the surrender of economic policies to the World Bank and western
“experts” by many countries.
II) Can Africa overcome these challenges?
In view of these formidable challenges, building the United States of Africa may
seem an impossible task, a Promethean undertaking. Indeed, one should be
skeptical about the ability and willingness of current African leadership to
build a genuine African unity. Because not only are the odds overwhelming but
also past experience does not show any sign of optimism. Therefore, if African
leaders are really serious about achieving this noble objective, they need to
make tough and courageous decisions.
A) Need for political will
The document on the United States of Africa, published by the African Union
(2006) claims: 'it should be realized that what unites Africans far surpasses
what divides them as a people' (page 8). Yet, this did not translate into a
political will to overcome their divisions and move toward strengthening African
unity. Therefore, what African leaders need first and foremost is the political
will to make the tough decisions and the courage and determination to implement
them. In reality, the decision to establish the United States of Africa is the
latest in a long series of decisions and agreements, most of which were never
implemented. Some of the agreements on regional integration are more than 30
years old, but they are still lagging behind for lack of genuine will to
implement them. The slow pace of integration and lack of solidarity is a
reflection of the unwillingness of many African leaders to place the fundamental
interests of the continent above national or even personal interests in order to
move decisively toward genuine unity and cooperation.
The lack of political will is better illustrated by the fate of key documents
adopted over several decades and that should have strengthened African unity and
laid the foundations for the United States of Africa. Think of the Lagos Plan of
Action (LPA), adopted in 1980 and which was quickly forgotten in favor of the
IMF and World Bank-imposed structural adjustment programs (SAPs). Think of the
African Alternative Framework, which was among the first documents to level a
devastating critique of SAPs in 1989. Think of the Arusha Charter for Popular
Participation in Development and Social Transformation, adopted in 1990 and
which contains a blueprint for citizen participation in the design and
implementation of public policies within a democratic and participatory
decision-making process. Think of the 1991 Abuja Treaty, for the creation of the
African Economic Community. This list is not exhaustive. Yet, when some African
leaders proposed NEPAD in 2001, it made a scant mention of these documents.
Instead, it attempted to rehabilitate failed and discredited neoliberal
B) Freeing the African mind.
The political will has an ideological dimension, which is the need for African
leaders to free their minds and understand once for all that they must take
responsibility for their own development. No country or group of countries, no
international institution, no amount of external ‘aid’ will ever
‘develop’ Africa. Likewise, no foreign country, no matter how powerful, will
ever guarantee the ‘security’ of African countries. It is therefore illusory
to assume that the United States, France or Britain will provide ‘security’
for Africa! Quite the contrary: these countries’ interest is to see a weak,
divided and defenseless Africa. African countries must take responsibility for
their own collective security! In this regard, African governments must close
down all foreign military bases and scrap all defense agreements signed with
former colonial powers and US imperialism. Furthermore, African governments must
end their allegiance to neo-colonial institutions, such as ‘Francophonie’,
Commonwealth and so forth.
C) An enlightened leadership
For these dramatic changes to take place, Africa needs an enlightened and
visionary leadership, who would listen to the voices of the people. This also
means promoting leaders who are accountable to their own citizens, not to
outside powers or institutions, as is the case in many countries. Furthermore,
Africa needs leaders who can define an agenda consistent with Africa’s
interests, not let someone else do it in their place. In other terms, African
leaders must no more accept that others speak or define policies in their place
for their continent. A case in point is the US “war on terror”. As indicated
earlier, some countries are supporting the US agenda. But fighting
‘terrorism’ is not a priority for Africa. The continent has other
priorities, which have nothing to do with terrorism.
D) Involve the African people
So far, African leaders seem to have forgotten the African people in the
conception and implementation of their agreements. To overcome the challenges
outlined above, African leaders must understand that they must move from a union
of States to a union of peoples. This means that the success of the United
States of Africa depends on putting African the people at the center of the
project. The popular participation in decision-making and implementation of
public policies, as called for by the Arusha Charter, is a critical factor in
building a genuine and strong Union. This seems to be understood by the document
published by the African Union (2006), which says that 'the Union Government
must be a Union of the African people and not merely a Union of States and
Governments' (page 4).
This seems to be just a lip service paid to the idea of popular participation,
because so far, there are no concrete steps to make it a reality. Despite the
establishment of some institutions, like the Economic, Social and Cultural
Council (ECOSOCC), the people have no say in the decisions of the Union. To
achieve a genuine Union of the African people, the first step should be to allow
a free movement of people –on the continent and in the Diaspora- throughout
the continent. It is unthinkable to build the United States of Africa by keeping
the current borders in place and limiting the free flow of African citizens
across the continent. The building of the Union must be rooted in the
mobilization of the African masses across the artificial borders set by former
colonial powers in order to divide and weaken the African people.
The paper has reviewed the challenges facing Africa in its attempt to build the
United States of Africa. External factors, such as the high costs of neoliberal
globalization and the US ‘War on Terror’, are likely to hamper African
efforts at unity and independence. These external factors take advantage of
Africa’s internal weaknesses and tend to aggravate them.
But does the current African leadership have the capacity and will to overcome
the internal and external challenges in the process of building the United
States of Africa? It is doubtful. Most of current African ‘leaders’ take
their orders from western capitals and have surrendered their policies to the
IMF, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. In the words of the late
Professor Joseph Ki-Zerbo (1995), these are ' "leaders" with
frightened minds' who can only 'imitate” their western masters. How can anyone
trust such ‘leaders’, some of whom contemplate providing military bases to
the United States in the name of fighting 'terrorism'?
The building of the United States of Africa requires a new leadership with the
political will to follow through their commitments. This means promoting a new
type of leadership in Africa, imbued with the ideals of Pan Africanism,
genuinely dedicated to the unity, independence and sovereignty of the continent
and to promoting the welfare of their citizens. It is a visionary leadership,
like Nkrumah and others of his generation. A leadership who refuses Africa’s
enslavement and will never accept that others speak or define policies for
So, building the United Sates of Africa requires a different kind of leadership
with decolonized minds, who are willing to stand up to foreign domination, who
would listen to their own citizens and promote policies aimed at recovering
Africa’s sovereignty over its resources and policies. In other words, the
success of such undertaking requires a leadership imbued with the values and
ideals of Pan Africanism and genuinely committed to the unity, independence and
sovereignty of Africa.
African Union (2006). A Study on an African Union Government. Towards the United
States of Africa. Addis Ababa
Christian Aid (2005). The economics of failure. The costs of ‘free’ trade
for poor countries. London
Commission for Africa (2005). Our Common Interest. London (March)
Ki-Zerbo, Joseph (1995), Which Way Africa? Reflections on Basil Davidson’s The
Black Man’s Burden.
Ndungane, Njongonkulu, “A CALL TO LEADERSHIP: The role of Africans in the
Development Agenda”. Harold Wolpe Memorial Lecture (30 November 2006), Howard
College Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Thus, we move forward as members of a generation that seeks to step up to
history and answer the call that all previous generations have hearkened to:
that Africa takes control of its economic, political and cultural livelihood. It
is time for our generation to answer Frantz Fanon's call to action, saying:
"Every generation must out of relative obscurity find its mission; fulfill
or betray it."
We also recognize that there are a number of political activists who have
taken individual or collective stands but still work in localized isolation.
This organization, then, is geared towards bringing together conscious voices of
all those struggling to bring change to their societies so that they can
recognize in both word and deed, each others' struggles. We also hope to provide
a forum by which a unified voice can generate a platform that is, in praxis,
cognizant of struggle, not only in Africa, but in the United States, Latin
America, the Caribbean and Asia.
Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome
As a result of twelve years of quantitative and qualitative
research Dr. Leary has developed her theory of Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome,
a theory that explains the etiology of many of the adaptive survival behaviors
in African American Communities throughout the United states and the Diaspora.
Dr. Leary has also developed the African American Male
Youth Respect Scale, a scale which measures the relationship between present
and historical issues of respect in relationship to the use of violence among
Dr. Leary's upcoming book "Post Traumatic Slave
Syndrome: America's Legacy of Injury and Healing" incorporates her
research in both America and Africa, as well as her twenty years experience as
a social work practitioner and consultant to public and private organizations.
In her book Dr. Leary first exposes the reader
to the conditions that led to the Atlantic slave trade and allowed the pursuant
racism and efforts at repression to continue through the present day. She then
looks at the seemingly insurmountable obstacles that our ancestors faced as the
result of the slave trade. Next she discusses the adaptive behaviors they
developed, both positive and negative, that allowed them to survive and often
even thrive. Dr. Leary concludes by reevaluating those adaptive behaviors that
have been passed down through generations and where appropriate, she explores
replacing behaviors which are today maladaptive with ones that will promote,
ensure and sustain the healing and advancement of African American culture.
QUESTION: What is the name of the book that you are
ANSWER: Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome: America’s Legacy of
Injury and Healing
QUESTION: What is PTSS?
Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome (PTSS) is a condition that exists as a
consequence of multigenerational oppression of Africans and their descendants
resulting from centuries of chattel slavery. A form of slavery which was
predicated on the belief that African Americans were inherently/genetically
inferior to whites. This was then followed by institutionalized racism which
continues to perpetuate injury. Thus,
Multigenerational Trauma together with continued oppression
and the Absence of opportunity to heal or access the benefits
available in the society leads to Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome. M+A=P
Under such circumstances these are some of the predictable patterns of
behavior that tend to occur:
Key Patterns of behavior reflective of PTSS:
Insufficient development of what I refer to as primary esteem, and
feelings of hopelessness, depression and general self destructive
Marked Propensity for Anger and Violence
Extreme Feelings Of Suspicion Perceived negative motivations of
others. Violence against self, property and others, including the
members of ones own group, i.e. friends, relatives, or acquaintances.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
To further understand what
stands against the Unification of Africa, One must understand what prevents
Black America from participating in efforts to unify Africa and that is the
destruction of the Black Family structure here in the United States itself...
WILLIAM RASPBERRY THE WASHINGTON
The black American family in crisis
July 25, 2005
'There is a crisis of unprecedented magnitude in the
black community, one that goes to the very heart of its survival. The black
family is failing."
Quibble if you will about the "unprecedented
magnitude" – slavery wasn't exactly a high point of African-American
well-being. But there's no quarreling with the essence of the alarm sounded here
last week by a gathering of Pentecostal clergy and the Seymour Institute for
Advanced Christian Studies. What is happening to the black family in America is
the sociological equivalent of global warming: easier to document than to
reverse, inconsistent in its near-term effect – and disastrous in the long
Father absence is the bane of the black community,
predisposing its children (boys especially, but increasingly girls as well) to
school failure, criminal behavior and economic hardship – and to an
intergenerational repetition of the grim cycle. The culprit, the ministers (led
by Boston's Rev. Eugene Rivers III, president of the Seymour Institute) agreed,
is the decline of marriage.
Kenneth B. Johnson, a Seymour senior fellow who has
worked in youth programs, says he often sees teenagers "who've never seen a
The concern is not new. As Rivers noted at last week's
National Press Club news conference, the late Daniel Patrick Moynihan sounded
the alarm 40 years ago, only to be "condemned and pilloried as misinformed,
malevolent, and even racist."
What is new is the understanding of how deep and wide
is the reach of declining marriage – and the still-forming determination to do
something about it.
When Moynihan first issued his controversial study,
roughly a quarter of black babies were born out of wedlock; moreover, it was
largely a low-income phenomenon. The proportion now tops two-thirds, with little
prospect of significant decline, and has moved up the socioeconomic scale.
There have been two main explanations. At the
low-income end, the disproportionate incarceration, unemployment and early death
of black men makes them unavailable for marriage. At the upper-income level, it
is the fact that black women are far likelier than black men to complete high
school, attend college and earn the professional credentials that would render
them "eligible" for marriage.
Both explanations are true. But black men aren't born
incarcerated, crime-prone dropouts. What principally renders them vulnerable to
such a plight is the absence of fathers and their stabilizing influence.
Fatherless boys (as a general rule) become ineligible
as husbands – though no less likely to become fathers – and their children
fall into the patterns that render them ineligible as husbands.
The absence of fathers means, as well, that girls lack
both a pattern against which to measure the boys who pursue them and an example
of sacrificial love between a man and a woman. As the ministers were at pains to
say last week, it isn't the incompetence of mothers that is at issue, but the
absence of half of the adult support needed for families to be most effective.
Interestingly, they blamed the black church for
abetting the decline of the black family – by moderating virtually out of
existence its once stern sanctions against extramarital sex and childbirth and
by accepting the present trends as more or less inevitable.
They didn't say – but might have – that black
America's almost reflexive search for outside explanations for our internal
problems delayed the introspective examination that might have slowed the trend.
What we have now is a changed culture – a culture whose worst aspects are
reinforced by oversexualized popular entertainment and that places a reduced
value on the things that produced nearly a century of socioeconomic improvement.
For the first time since slavery, it is no longer possible to say with assurance
that things are getting better.
As the Rev. Jesse Jackson once said in a slightly
different context, "What began as a problem has deteriorated into a
condition. Problems require solving; conditions require healing."
How to start the healing? Rivers and his colleagues
hope to use their personal influence, a series of marriage forums and their
well-produced booklet, "God's Gift: A Christian Vision of Marriage and the
Black Family," to launch a serious, national discussion and action program.
In truth, though, the situation is so critical – and
its elements so interconnected and self-perpetuating – that there is no wrong
place to begin. When you find yourself in this sort of a hole, someone once
said, the first thing to do is stop digging.
A new "Scramble for Africa" is taking place among the world's big
powers, who are tapping into the continent for its oil and diamonds. Tony Blair
is pushing hard for African debt relief agreements in the run-up to the G8
summit in Scotland in July. But while sub-Saharan Africa is the object of the
west's charitable concern, billions of pounds' worth of natural resources are
being removed from it...READ
* A note from Mark Wood, Founder of the USA4USAfrica coalition and this
In 1996 we said Kofi Annan would broker the relief of African debt to the
west as one of his first moves to position himself for election of the United
Africa's first president. In the years since, we have seen Kofi Annan added to
the character assassinations occurring with black celebrities of note worldwide
and across the board, from sports stars to music stars to movie stars to politicians,
including Kofi Annan.
Kofi Annan would not have brokered an agreement that gave the debt owed
nations mineral rights and other consolidations that would leave the African
nations when they DO UNITE, totally depleted in their own national
resources from the debt relief brokered by Tony Blair of Britain - and would
leave the United African Nations again in a position of debt.
The fact that Kofi Annan is being discredited on the world stage because
of a job he brokered for his son for a job that barely paid $2600 per month
( not enough to even exist in greater Manhattan ) is evidence that a proven
leader of Kofi Annan's stature can be nickel and dime'd out of leadership of the
UN and a United Africa is part of a covert effort to make sure Africa never
rises from it's knees on the world stage.
Notes from USA4USAfrica founder Mark Wood:
A major part of the unification of Africa, is that it's people need to
VISUALIZE a United States of Africa or United Africa.
In trying to get a MOVIE produced regarding a United States of Africa and
talking to Studio people, Hollywood has the same response as Rhett Butler in
that American classic film "Gone with the Wind", Frankly my dear, WE
JUST DON'T GIVE A DAMN!
For example as reported in the CSM:
'This is Africa," says an African to an American in "Sahara," set in Nigeria and Mali, "and nobody cares about Africa."
To a large extent, he's right. For proof, look at the movie itself - standard buddy fare about American salvagers seeking a Civil War ship that somehow wound up in an African desert. All the heroes are white, except Hispanic star Penélope Cruz, and African tribulations (tyranny, warlords, violence) serve as little more than an exotic backdrop.
Even the main crux of the plot - a plague of toxic pollution - galvanizes the characters mostly because it's headed for the Atlantic Ocean and thence to New York City's crowded coast. Why, people who buy multiplex tickets dwell there!
This sort of approach to Africa is common. Mass-market movies hardly ever set their stories there - and when they do, as in "Out of Africa" and "White Mischief," they're mostly interested in photogenic landscapes. Africa is almost as much of a "dark continent" for moviegoers today as in the past.
There's a grim irony in this, at a time when headlines about western Sudan are crying out to the world for attention, just as events in Somalia did a dozen years ago. It takes catastrophe of huge proportions to focus American minds on African issues.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
excerpts from Africa’s Future
by Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe
"On the structure of the United States of Africa,
there appears to be no clear agreement yet among African nationalists. At
the Accra Conference, Dr. Nkrumah stressed the necessity for such a
communion of our own to give expression to the African personality...
So it is an unitary constitution that PAC envisages for
the United States of Africa, with all the power vested in a central
government freely elected by the whole Continent on the basis of universal
adult suffrage. In such a set-up, only continent-wide parties committed to
a continental program, and cutting across sectional ties and interests,
whether of a tribal or religious nature, are possible.
A socialist government will in turn promote the idea of
African Unity and the concept of free and independent African personality.
The potential wealth of Africa in minerals, oil, hydro-electric power and
so on is immense. By cutting out waste through systematic planning, a
central government can bring about the most rapid development of every
part of the state...
...In an United States of Africa, there will be no
"racial groups", and I am certain that with the freedom of
movement from Cape to Cairo, Morocco to Madagascar, the concentration of
so-called minority groups will disappear.
The Educational Series
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
The founding of the "USA for USAFRICA" movement calls for nothing less than
the formation and conception of a "United States of Africa" as a way to insure
the survival of a pivotal continent in the development and history of Mankind.
The position and purpose of the
USA for USAfrica coalition is to lobby for Mr. Kofi Annan to be elected as the
first President of a United States of Africa - ratified by the vote of all
Africans in Africa's first continental election and action as a United
Africa by the end Mr. Annan's second term as head of the United Nations
in 6 years.
The finished movie screenplay takes an
autobiographical view of the movement
from it's beginning at Muhammid Ali's Freemont Place home in 1987 Los Angeles
to the Internet birth of the movement in Valencia, CA. 1996, through it's "media boom"
born on the Internet, to it's gathering of supporters, famous
( Muhammad Ali ) and everyday people of all backgrounds who after consideration,
arrive at the conclusion, that a united Africa will not only spur a worldwide movement involving the largest number of people in history, but also spur mankind to pull together for peace in the world, "at last".
Oscar winner, Morgan Freeman
is being asked to play the role of Kofi Annan, and producer songwriter Babyface
is being asked to play the
role of the USA4USAfrica co -founder, Mark Wood and Matthew Perry
is being asked to play the role of co founder Robert Wood.
The movie takes place in several U.S. and African locations going
through as many countries possible in the Soderberg "Traffic" movie/documentary
style, interspersed with film and live video footage.
Being an autobiographical version of a movement
already in place,
enough "liberties" can be taken with the screenplay and script to
give the film enough buzz for green light status. The music portion of the film
drives it even further with an all star soundtrack from artists featuring their
most heartfelt songs of freedom and change. It's a concept that can not be denied.
From rappers to freestyle poets, to the business and bankers who see untold
opportunity if they could participate in a United Africa. The very debate of
the idea will spur and grow the movement to the point where it actually happens.
All movie's have to have an opposite factor, and it lies in the
reality that Libya's Kadafi heeded some of the first e-mails sent by the
USA4USAfrica to the early African Internet of the mid 90's and has been actively
wooing African leaders into a United States of Africa led by himself! Yes this
is actually happening and if your media has not been presenting it to you, PLEASE
click on some of the links supplied on this web link: United
States of Africa? Thus our purpose of lobbying for U.N. leader Kofi Annan.
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Let It Be...
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
"I strongly believe that
Pan-Africanism is even more relevant today than it was in the 1960s. Then it
was necessarily visionary but it was this very idealism that served to limit
Pan-Africanism to a dream, limiting its scope and to a large extent derailing
it. When the hard reality of development set in, the ideals of Pan-Africanism
were quietly forgotten and were put on the shelf to gather dust.
Yet Africa's place as an equal partner at the global table can only be assured
if it thinks and acts regionally."
Lalla Ben Barka
Deputy Executive Secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA)
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
Prize Award Ceremony Kofi Annan receiving his Nobel Prize from
Gunnar Berge, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Kofi Annan of Ghana is the seventh Secretary-general of the United
Nations. The first Secretary-general to be elected from the ranks of United
Nations staff, he began his term on 1 January 1997 and recently elected to a
second 5 year term.
Kofi Annan has devoted almost his entire working life to the UN
As Secretary-general, he has been preeminent in bringing new life to the
organization. While clearly underlining the UN's traditional responsibility for
peace and security, he has also emphasized its obligations with regard to human
The United States of Africa: The Movie - Synopsis
Hear one of the songs from the
soundtrack by clicking HERE.
The movie is personal and autobiographical as well. It tells the story of how
this particular movement for a United States of Africa was born from pure
It details how the screenplay's author, Mark
Wood came to Los Angeles from Milwaukee with hopes of the typical music and
movie fame as a "Jimi Hendrix - Bootsy Collins" styled 1 man band in
the tradition of Prince. This adventure that started at age 20, follows his path
from the various companies he worked which connected him to meet many of the
famous in music, television and film and realize that fame without meaning and a
purpose for the betterment of humanity is, while comfortable, is meaningless in
the "Big Picture" of Life.
A chance meeting with one of the most known
living people on earth, Muhammad Ali and their discussions over 3 separate
visits, not about boxing, but religions, humanity, philosophy and the state of
black people in the world today and how they got there triggered my personal
meaning of purpose.
Mr. Ali said he would like to see Africa as
a united country in his lifetime or at least know the process was in place
before he died. The more I thought about it, the more sense it made.
Being shortly after "We are the
World" and Live Aid, Africa's starvation and misery was broadcast world
wide and then forgotten until the next disaster. For all the money generated, in
the present, Africa still cries the same tears and a "911" amount of
people die EVERY day.
A united Africa is in my best interest, your
best interest and most importantly, Africa's best interest. A united Africa is
an Africa strong enough to heal it's own wounds and nourish itself from it's own
STILL largely untapped resources.
A united Africa will involve the world's
economies and in fact revive them. a United Africa will require debate and
decision among Africans themselves, but how do you get the debate on the world
and African stage for it to take place?
My idea is a movie, so people can visualize
a United Africa, my other idea is the soundtrack to the movie with participation
of various artists on a "We are the World" scale, all contributing
songs and music themed on a Unification of Africa and why it should be...
Being a heavy smoker, I may not live to see
it, but I made a promise to Mr. Ali that I would try to make it happen or start
to happen in HIS lifetime and hopefully in MINE.
The rate of death in Africa is exponential
and a United Africa must be in place by 2025 or there will be NO African people
to unite.... What say ye?
The movie has alternate endings, one triumphant, one sad, then
The original song whose lyric included the line the movement
was born from, predicts the leader of a United Africa surviving an
assassination attempt in
the year 2020, but recovering and surviving to lead and even more united new
continent nation. Under the new federal Africa of united country states with
open borders so any person born on African soil (any color ) could live in ANY
area of Africa of their choice to live, educate, seek business opportunity and
lifestyle. Starvation across the land mass would be eliminated from inter-continental
highways and infrastructure. Finally Africa would realize the economic benefits
of having the world's largest coastline and secure fair market price and profits
for many of it's natural resources still mostly 98% undeveloped over the last
thousand years. Potential, that would benefit all of it's people and the world
AIDS and it's exponential death rate are finally under control
and Africa is healing and drawing people from all over the world who can now
travel the entire continent in safety and wonder. The smiles and health of children
that have had their very lives saved and given a chance, the return of two parent
families in ensuing generations, all this and more because Africa is one and
self sufficient, from an idea, no one gave a chance.
With a need to be brief, the screenplay will be marketed to the
major and independent film markets. The marketing and licensing possibilities
all lead to growing the concept and movement into realization.
Otherwise, I ask you - where do you think the world is heading?
Join the USA for USAfrica (United States of
America for a United States of Africa)
How about this, The USA for USAfrica received a stunning
e-mail revealing the FIRST mention of the concept of a United States of Africa,
( besides the first President of Ghana and the Wood Brothers in the 1996,) was
from none other than the late Gene Roddenberry, the creator of the TV series
Star Trek. The only black cast member, Uhura of the series was born
United States of Africa!
an Africa thoroughly involved in Education, Science, Opportunity and
It's not a
Dream, A United States of Africa is possible - envision it!
How It Began....
Mark WoodRobert Wood
The Wood Brothers
The Internet concept for "USA4USAFRICA" came from a
prophetic song written by The Wood Bros entitled "November 18th 2020". Among the
song's predictions are the Continental earthquake on the western Pacific rim in
the year 2013 and the the 1st leader of the United States of Africa in 2020.
The USA4USAFRICA was actually born
from the quote of Muhammad Ali in 1987 in a personal meeting in which he
revealed he would like to see the whole of Africa united in his lifetime.
I never forgot those words and decided one day I would have a viable way to make
it happen. Then came the Internet and in a moment of epiphany the movement was
reborn as USA4USAFRICA.
While we understand the beginning of the USA for USAfrica may have an unusual
genesis, the heart felt reasons behind the movement are unmistakable, and the
need for a United States of Africa, is Undeniable.
No continent in the world is better positioned than Africa, ( a United Africa
) to contribute to the welfare of Mankind over the next thousand years. As an
ABC Night Line reporter covering Africa noted, "Africa is 98% virtually the same
as it was a thousand years ago." An incredible vast land of undeveloped
potential both for it's people and the world.
In a United States of Africa, a citizen could freely travel from Gambia to
South Africa to Algeria or anywhere on the continent to seek education,
opportunity, commerce or the simple pleasure of tourist travel within their vast
A common African currency much like the EU model affords the ability to buy
and sell throughout the continent with a reliable backed currency. A
transcontinental citizenship throughout Africa will one day become the envy of
the free world.
Much of Africa's third world debt could be relived if freedom and security of
capitalism were able to thrive in any African country - state from taxes paid by
companies involved in business in any African location. An immediate positive
effect would arise from local, municipal and federal levels throughout Africa.
Any and all of these possibilities can only arise from what can take place in
a United States of Africa. With national borders being no more restrictive than
state borders, allowing transcontinental travel, commerce and opportunity for
all African citizens.
A United States of Africa with the largest usable coastline in the world
could one day be the country that enriches all of Mankind, feeds the world,
heals the world, teaches the world and balances the world. There is so much more
involved and the USA for USAfrica is not naive to the many levels that must be
addressed, our point is the dialogue must begin at once, in the media, on the
airwaves, in discussions and editorials.
The concept of a United States of Africa must immediately be brought into
public debate worldwide and among Africans themselves.
Read more on the coming United States of Africa from these
newspaper and media excerpts:
DREAMS OF A UNITED
for National Geographic News
September 21, 2000
Once again, Africans are dreaming of
unity. But observers both on and off the world’s second largest
continent say they will have to deal with some serious demons before a
United States of Africa can ever become a reality.
The Organization for African Unity ended a counsel of ministers
conference July 2000 in Togo with its latest call for a formal union
of African countries. Desmond Orjiako, spokesman for the 37-year-old
alliance, told reporters that union was “easily one of the most
important issues to be discussed,” and declared that all the African
states have now accepted the idea in principle.
“We had two strong views on it,” said Orjiako. “Some
delegates felt the union was very important but the formation process
was just too fast. They wanted to have certain things ironed out
first. Others felt the discussions should continue because they had
made so much progress.”
Not everyone is optimistic. Zimbabwe political scientist Tafadzwa
Musekiwa says the biggest impediment to union is the reluctance of
many African leaders—including in some cases harsh dictators—to
give up power.
“The idea of uniting Africa is a noble one,” says Musekiwa.
“But I am afraid such an idea may not be realized, at least in [the
next] thousand years.”
SO MUCH MISERY
Disunity and warfare both inside and among the continent’s 53
countries—about 30 percent of the world’s total—is often blamed
for Africa’s many ills.
Six African countries are perennially among the 10 poorest on
Earth, according to the World Bank. This year an estimated 8 million
people risk starvation in the Horn of Africa, a result of famine and
Last year more than 3 million people in 15 countries were forced to
abandon their homes because of war, insurgencies and repression,
according to the U.S. Committee for Refugees. Political violence in
Congo-Brazzaville accounted for an estimated 800,000 refugees. A
resurgence of Angola’s long-running civil war forced at least half a
million people to flee.
More than 400,000 others fled their homes in Burundi and the
Democratic Republic of Congo, and 350,000 left because of the border
war between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Large populations also fled in
Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Somalia and five other countries.
Underlying many attempts to explain all this strife and suffering
is the oft-heard assumption that Africa’s problems can be traced
back to the way it was carved up by Europe’s 19th-century colonial
Seven countries—France, Britain, Germany, Portugal, Spain, Italy
and Belgium—partitioned the continent at the Berlin Conference of
1884-85. Conference host Otto von Bismarck—the “Iron Chancellor”
of the German Empire—famously declared: “My map of Africa lies in
The competing powers gerrymandered the landmass with their own
political boundaries, which often divided language and cultural
groups. The resulting ethnic fragmentation has been blamed for helping
touch off some 50 successful political coups during the post-colonial
Global competition during the Cold War further exacerbated strife,
as governments in the East and West staged surrogate war and intrigue
in Africa through adopted clients.
BOUNDARIES TO BLAME?
Now that the Cold War is over, one of the many colonial legacies
that remain is language. French is the official language in 18
countries. In 15 others it’s English. In Cameroon and Seychelles,
Richard Roberts, director of Stanford University’s Center for
African Studies, points to the “fascinating case”; of the border
between Nigeria and Benin. “The line was drawn in the middle of the
Yoruba state, in the middle of a coherent precolonial state. Now you
have two national Yorubas. In Nigeria, where English is the official
language, and in Benin, where French is.”
Far from uniting, a number of countries periodically undergo
secession crises sparked by language and ethnic differences. The black
Christian and animist south of Sudan—geographically the largest
African country—feels rejected by the Arab Moslem north, leading to
a violent state of civil war for much of its more than four decades of
“All across the Sahara there are boundary disputes,” says
Roberts. “The Senegal River was used as the border between
Mauritania and Senegal, but there was a constant flow of people back
and forth across the river. All of a sudden, they belonged to
“Almost none of the current boundaries relate to tribal
boundaries,” says George J. Demko, geography professor and former
director of Dartmouth College’s Rockefeller Center. “Anybody would
have screwed it up, though, not just the Europeans. No matter who
created the borders, they would have had to trample over some of those
tribal lines. You couldn’t make states out of all those tiny tribal
Demko is one of many analysts who believe that redrawing national
boundaries is not the answer to Africa’s many ills. “This business
of being politically correct about boundaries is a little silly. I
would argue that any attempt to restore boundaries that existed before
the colonial period would cause nothing but more conflict.”
Geography professor H.J. de Blij of Marshall University agrees.
“Governments that find themselves in possession of territory are
loathe to give it up, however reasonable the claims of their neighbors
De Blij, Demko and others see far more important issues that need
to be addressed if Africa has any hope of emerging from its seemingly
endless misery, including what Demko calls a “failure of
“I really think the main cause of conflict is no longer
boundaries,” he says. “It’s corruption, lack of education, and
lack of enlightened political leadership and national cohesion.”
Adds de Blij: “The truth is, Africa has not had any tutelage in
statehood applicable to the kinds of states the colonial powers left
behind. As a result, Africa has virtually no voice in international
affairs. African countries are powerless: I think that’s really the
These difficulties make any prospect of Africa uniting under one
national flag—much less of successfully dealing with tribalism and
regionalism inside many of the separate states—unlikely anytime
soon, in the view of many. In the words of a recent Zimbabwe newspaper
editorial, the United States of Africa continues to be “a
Evolution of Pan-Africanism
The ultimate goal is
"A United Africa". This is the final destination of the long journey
but we should pause and ask several questions. The first of these is "where
did the journey start?" as we can draw on lessons from the past for
understanding of the issues we currently face. The second question; "where
are we now?" places achievements and challenges in the movement towards
unity in context, and gives us the necessary information to ask "Where
do we go from here?"
The call for a "
United Africa" has been around for a long time. A look back at history is
needed to understand the evolution of "Pan-Africanism" which takes its
roots from the slave trade, colonialism, oppression and exploitation. Pan-Africanism
represented a reaction against the oppression of the black man and the racial
doctrines that marked the era of slavery.
evolved from a movement of self-assertion and resistance to enslavement in those
early days, to organized forces with cultural and political claims. After the
Second World War, It took on a continental dimension and came to represent the
quest for continental unity.
survival of this movement and its functional relevance to this day underlines
the validity of the political, economic and strategic consideration behind Pan-Africanism.
The first Pan-
African conference to address the problems of African people worldwide was held
in 1900, when Mr Henry Sylvester-Williams convened a conference in London. The
delegates talked of creating a movement to campaign for African people's rights.
It achieved the idea of oneness in experience that has reconfirmed itself again
procedure adopted by Henry Sylvester-Williams, in connection with the 1900
Pan-African conference, W.E.B DuBois convened and presided over a series of
Pan-African congresses between 1919 and 1945 which laid the ground for later
successes. The fifth in the series, held in 1945, is considered to herald the
beginning of a new era where for the first time, Africans from Africa, Africans
from the Caribbean and Africans from the United States came together and
designed a programme for the future independence of Africa. They proclaimed all
dependencies must be free from alien control, both political and economic.
Pan-African Congress (Manchester, England 1945)
Seen in retrospect,
this Congress won the reputation as pacemaker for decolonization in Africa,
which demanded an end to colonial rule and an end to racial discrimination.
While it carried forward hopes and visions for a United Africa, the Fifth
Congress injected a note of militancy, which was taken back to Africa and
enhanced the struggle for national independence.
attended, with twenty-six from all over Africa. These included Peter Abrahams
for the African National Congress (ANC), and a number of men who were later to
become political leaders in their countries, such as Hastings Banda, Kwame
Nkrumah, Obafemi Awolowo and Jomo Kenyatta.
With the independence
of African countries, the first significant step was taken in the continent's
struggle for unity as it gained a much-needed base on African soil. Pan-Africanism
remained in the realm of ideas until Ghana, under Kwame Nkrumah, became a
sovereign state in 1957. The emancipation of Ghana served to pave the way for
closer co-operation among African people. Thus, from 1958 onwards, the notion of
Pan -Africanism moved into the realm of practical policies.
liberation struggles made Africans realize more and more that they faced common
tasks and that unity had become a necessity. In April 1958, for the first time,
leaders of independent African States met to discuss common problems with a view
to working out common policies covering political, economic, cultural and social
matters. The meeting was held in Ghana and was attended by seven other
independent states, namely; Libya, Ethiopia, Liberia, Morocco, Tunisia, Sudan
and the United Republic of Egypt.
representation of the numerous political and public organizations in African
countries was achieved through the All-African People's Conference. The first
conference met at Accra, Ghana in December 1958 under a banner proclaiming
"HANDS OFF AFRICA! AFRICA MUST BE FREE!"
Contribution of American and West Indians of African origin to the development
of Pan-Africanism was noted at the First All-African People's Conference in
Accra in 1958 by Dr. Nkrumah who said
of them have made no small contribution to the cause of African freedom. Names
which spring immediately to mind in this connection are those of Marcus
Garvey, and W.E.B. DuBois. Long before many of us were even conscious of our
own degradation, these men fought for African national and racial equality.
Long may the
links between Africa and the peoples of African descent continue to hold us
together in fraternity. Now that we in Africa are marching towards the
complete emancipation of this Continent, our independent status will help in
no small measure their efforts to attain full human rights and human dignity
as citizens of their country."
An address entitled
" the future of Africa" by DuBois who was at that time approaching 91
years of age and unwell, was given on his behalf by his wife. Among other things
unites, it will be because each part, each nation, each tribe gives up a part
of the heritage for the good of the whole. That is what union means; that is
what Pan Africa-means: When the child is born into the tribe the price of his
growing up is giving a part of his freedom to the tribe. This he soon learns
or dies. When the tribe becomes a union of tribes, the individual tribe
surrenders some part of its freedom to the paramount tribe."
The second gathering
was held in Tunis, Tunisia in January 1960 and the third in Cairo, Egypt in
March 1961. From conference to conference there was a great desire for unity and
on May 25 1963, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 32 African Heads of states and
Government came together to form the Organization of African Unity (OAU), a
crucial step in the movement towards integration.
United States of Africa?
Alice in Wonderland
September 28, 2004
Libyan President Muammar Qaddafi has come up with some pretty bizarre ideas
over the years, which is why it was so surprising to find a group of Cornell
students seriously debating the merits of one of them: The United States of
Africa. The discussion was prompted by the visit to Cornell by Pete Ondeng,
the head of the Kenyan Secretariat of the New Partnership for African
Development (NEPAD), as part of the Institute for African Development's (IAD)
ongoing Thursday seminar series. The prominence of NEPAD in the IAD seminar
series is indicative of how seriously many African intellectuals are
considering the idea of regional integration.
Integration is a much-debated topic: The European Union will most likely
decide this week that reforms in Turkey meet the Copenhagen criteria and
European ministers will then vote on whether to allow Turkey to take the next
step toward integration; America is constantly evaluating the success of NAFTA
and debating its economic dependence on Mexican migrant workers and
importation of cheap drugs from Canada. Even on the micro-scale at Cornell
University, residential communities with special priorities like Ujamaa, Alice
H. Cook House and the Center for Jewish Living are constantly engaged in
striking a balance between forging a unique identity around their founding
principles and vision and integration with the broader campus community.
However, to discuss integration in Africa, one needs to have a better
understanding of the continent. At this time, one needs a healthy dose of
optimism even to begin examining the problems that African countries face. The
economic climate is characterized by widespread poverty, rampant unemployment,
large foreign debt and a workforce crippled by HIV/AIDS, where it is estimated
that in many countries, almost one in three young adults are infected by the
virus. Then we have the worse examples of countries plagued by civil war and
genocide. The inability of the Organization of African Unity to handle the
atrocities in Darfur, Sudan and the exodus of refugees it has created just add
to a long list of the continent's shortcomings, which include not providing
clean water to most of its citizens; causing millions to die from preventable
diseases and entire villages dying from starvation during floods and droughts
because relief food can not be adequately distributed.
In examining the vicious cycle of African poverty, Mr. Ondeng notes that
Sub-Saharan African countries transfer to their creditors several times more
money than they spend on healthcare. Unfortunately, the transition from
colonialism to corrupt post-colonial leaders, fueled by institutional and
multinational corporate profiteers who were unabated by illiterate populations
has left the continent in dire straits. Perhaps the malady of African
leadership is illustrated by the recent talks aimed at providing some sort of
government in war-torn Somalia. When the delegates of the Transitional
National Government of Somalia realized that they were being hosted
luxuriously in the city of Eldoret, they brought along three times as many
cronies than they were permitted. Being cash-strapped, the organizers soon
decided to move to a cheaper location in Nairobi, which immediately prompted
boycott calls from the Somali leaders: It was contrary to their religious
beliefs to be hosted in a city that had a zoo! With leaders who always put
their personal comfort over the welfare of their people, there is no hope for
progress on the continent.
It is within this African context that one must understand Mr. Ondeng's
cautious optimism and the vision for a United States of Africa. Eyeing with
envy the economic prowess of America and the European Union, to some a united
continent is the Utopian solution to all Africa's problems. Proponents argue
that countries in Africa were sliced up arbitrarily during the Berlin
Conference, with borders cutting through tribal lines, leaving behind an odd
mixture of people with strong tribal identities bundled together and expected
to form a democratic state. For example, the Kenyan population is so
comfortable with tribal politics that nobody raised an eyebrow when the
columnists for the leading Kenyan newspapers demanded that after the death of
former Kenyan Vice President Michael Wamalwa, his successor be chosen from the
same Luhya ethnic community to preserve the tribal balance of power in the
country; and indeed this is exactly what happened. In much of Africa,
elections are more about tribal affiliations and alliances than they are about
issues and ideology.
It is unlikely that a United States of Africa would solve any of these
problems. If geography is the basis for integration, then Egypt is better off
casting its lot with Syria and Israel than with Namibia and Madagascar;
Algeria and Morocco should capitalize on their proximity to Europe rather than
looking for common ground with Zimbabwe. More important, even regional
integration like the East African Community had to be postponed for five years
because it came with a whole host of problems. Allowing in geographically
mobile and educated workforces from a neighboring country can only further
exacerbate local unemployment with no guarantee that profits will not be
repatriated back to the home country. Furthermore, expanded markets only
benefit countries with a comparative advantage in manufacturing industries and
with available capital, which again will benefit some countries to the
short-term detriment to others.
Odeng counters that we should look at the long-term benefit. The wisdom of
John Keynes replies that there is no such thing as the long run: "In the
long run, we are all dead." Odeng rebuts that we should plant the seeds
of integration, whose fruits will be reaped by a future generation. This
discussion brings to mind a Kenyan proverb: We did not inherit the world from
our parents, we merely borrowed it for our children.
Shaffique Adam is a graduate student in physics. He can be reached at
email@example.com. Alice in Wonderland appears alternate Tuesdays.
United States of Africa?
How much do African leaders really want to unite?
By Barnaby Phillips in Lome
One of the most important subjects on the agenda at summit in Togo is the
proposal to form an African Union - a pan-African body with strong political
and economic ties intended to eventually take the place of the current
Organisation of African Unity.
African leaders fear their continent is
becoming increasingly powerless in a tough global economic environment.
Many believe that unless Africa can talk and act with greater cohesion, it
will continue to be virtually ignored by the richer countries.
Beyond this general consensus, which is shared by all the 30 or so heads of
state in Lome, there are considerable differences about what is the best way to
Gaddafi for union
At one end of the spectrum is Libya's Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, who has
grabbed much of the attention here.
Colonel Gaddafi raised the idea of an
African Union, loosely modelled on its European counterpart, at an extraordinary
summit in Libya last year.
His ambition is that the union should come into existence, in some form, in
Colonel Gaddafi can count on support for this idea from several small
countries in Africa, like Burkina Faso and Togo, who have benefited from his
But some of the more powerful African countries are wary of losing their own
regional influence and concerned at any initiative that would weaken their
sovereignty or ability to act independently.
Nigeria, for example, enjoys its role as the dominant force in the existing
West African grouping, the Economic Community of West African States, Ecowas.
In recent years Ecowas has made significant
progress in easing travel restrictions in West Africa, and has started the
process of establishing a single West African currency.
In southern Africa, South Africa enjoys a similarly important role in SADC,
the Southern African Development Community.
Although SADC's effectiveness has been diminished in recent years, in part
because of political differences between South Africa and Zimbabwe, many
southern Africans would prefer to work towards regional integration first,
before looking at pan-African unity.
Likewise in East Africa, where Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania have been working
to revive the old East African Community, which collapsed in the mid-1970s
because of political and ideological differences.
There are about 50 African states, and they trade far more with the rest of
the world than they do with each other.
Despite Colonel Gaddafi's plans, its hard to see how an African Union will
mean much in practical terms, at least in the short term.
But it is possible that new pan-African institutions, such as a parliament
and a court of law, will come into existence in the next few years - possibly
providing a basis for a more united Africa in the future.
Annan said that integration was the way to develop Africa's economy but said
that its poor infrastructure, debt burden and many conflicts were sizeable
"To build a successful union in such conditions will require great
stamina and iron political will," said Mr Annan.
He said that Africa must solve its problems before expecting Western leaders
to increase its aid or forgive debts.
This is the gist of Africa's latest development plan - the New Partnership
for Africa's Development (Nepad).
"They will respect us even more when they see us actually resolve the
conflicts that disfigure our continent. And I do mean, resolve them. Managing
them is not enough," he said.
But Colonel Gaddafi was not asking for Western aid:
"Those who want to assist us, we welcome. Those who want to impose
conditions on use, we don't want them," he said.
Dakar, Senegal (PANA) - The leader of the Libyan Revolution, Colonel
Muammar Kadhafi has reiterated the need to form the United States of
Africa in order to give the continent more influence in the
Kadhafi, who was addressing a videoconference on Thursday, asked
Intellectuals from Africa and the Diaspora meeting in Dakar, to
emphasise in their resolutions the creation of the United States
"No African country taken individually has enough bargaining
power to negotiate on an equal footing with big European or
American countries," he observed, adding that there are 18
African countries, which taken together, have the size of a city
like New York in the USA.
According to Kadhafi, it is therefore urgent for African
countries to unite and establish a strong government. "We need
one trade minister to negotiate for us and one foreign minister,"
he argues. This will help unify Customs codes, which is the only
way for Africa to have balanced relationships with the rest of
He said Africa also needs to break with consultative assemblies
and set up a Pan-African Congress that makes decisions.
He gave the example of the Libyan popular congresses, which are
the expression of the people's power.
Furthermore, Kadhafi urged Africans from the Diaspora to defend
the interests of the continent where they live.
"We have noticed that whenever an African holds a position of
responsibility in an important institution or a big country, he
forgets his origins and is sometimes more Catholic than the
Pope," the Libyan leader observed.
This is not the case for Jews, who take advantage of their
responsibilities in the American or European administrations to
defend the interest of Israel, he noted.
"I do not understand why Africans from the Diaspora are so shy
and unassuming? Why wouldn't they assert their rights in America
and in Europe, where their ancestors had been forcibly taken to
work as beasts in farms and factories," Kadhafi queried.
There is another disaster, which he feels that Africans should
correct. "We send our children to America and Europe to study and
be trained. After graduating, they chose to stay and serve those
countries instead of returning to Africa, turning deaf ears to
the tremendous sacrifice we made for their studies," Kadhafi told
intellectuals, urging them to find a solution to that problem.
Dakar - 08/10/2004
which is updated throughout the day with hundreds of news stories from the
United States of Africa. Their name was inspired by The Wood Bros. song on a
futuristic Africa called November 18th 2020
Hear the song at the hyperlinked title.
INVENTING THE MULTINATION Would a United States of Africa work?
In July, in Lomé (Togo), the Organisation of African
Unity summit approved the act establishing an African Union which should
eventually replace the OAU. But the dream of a United States of Africa can
only become a reality if a new model of multinational state is adopted, based
on a social and democratic pact and rooted in Africa’s own traditions.
By Mwayila Tshiyembe
The United States of Africa remains a
constant theme - the great dream cherished from the earliest days of pan-Africanism..
For many political leaders, the failure of the post-colonial state is the
root cause of the marginalisation and upsurge in violence that is plunging
whole swathes of Africa into chaos. They also think the failure is the
source of the dramatic rise in poverty that now threatens the survival of
tens of thousands of people. It is destroying what remains of social
cohesion, and leaving the way open to the terrifying pandemics of Aids and
malaria. Meantime managers are unemployed, have left the country or are
closeted away in a bankrupt civil service, wasting the hard-won knowledge
they acquired from western schooling.
But the purveyors of this gloomy analysis
rarely raise the possibility of a new state model based on African
traditions. Yet that is the absolute prerequisite if Africa is to emerge
from the crisis, and it is the only chance of meeting the challenges of
globalisation. Unless new life is injected into it, the concept of a United
States of Africa will remain an empty shell. Africa will not have genuine
constitutional states or sustainable development - never mind the
intellectual revival and resolve it so desperately needs.
The failure of the post-colonial state
reflects a questioning of the will to co-exist, and a loss of purpose and
direction. The nations (or ethnic groups) are in fundamental disagreement
about the community’s basic values. How are we to define a free society,
authority that is properly conferred and shared, and law that seems to come
naturally? State and society seem to have been in conflict ever since
Africa’s plurinational societies saw their own model destroyed to make way
for an enforced western caricature.
Although colonial domination disrupted the
process of state building, African societies remain plurinational by nature.
The pre-colonial nations - that marked out the identities of these
multinational states - survived: even though they were parcelled out and
often dispersed among several states, it was not impossible to reforge a
societal link. An unexpected consequence of the crisis in the nation-state
is that the concept of nation is no longer shackled by the law or by
revolutionary mystique. The break-up of the Soviet Union and former
Yugoslavia, the separation between the Czech Republic and Slovakia, the
Tutsi genocide and the chaos in Somalia are all proof of that.
From now on, it will be possible to
distinguish between the legal nation - "state" - and the
sociological nation - "ethnic group". The sociological nation is
founded on shared traits (language, blood ties, religion and a common
history) and an evident desire to live together. It is the bedrock of
nationality of origin. But the post-colonial state merely notes its
existence, having no historical or administrative memory of the people and
countries juxtaposed, simply because colonialism willed it so.
Reinstating these nations will make it
possible to bring to an end the crisis of national consciousness and
identity that is ravaging Africa, and will prevent political manipulation of
disputes over nationality. The kind of manipulation that has led, for
example, to the banishment the Banyamulengue community to the east of
Congo-Kinshasa, and the marginalisation of former President Kenneth Kaunda
in Zambia or former Prime Minister Alassane Ouattara in Ivory Coast. If the
multinational state were established, the law would lay down that
nationality is defined by consciousness and membership of a community of
shared values (Akan, Mosi, Bamileke) and citizenship by consciousness and
membership of a state (Ivory Coast, Burkina, Cameroon) (1).
This renaissance of the state can be rooted
in Africanness. Contrary to received wisdom, black Africa, like Europe,
created its own model of multinational state and nation-ethnic group: the
empires of Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Songhay, Noupé, Ifé, Benin, Kanem-Bornou,
the Congo, Monomopata and Zimbabwe date back to the African Middles Ages
(2). In those societies, the political element came before the state,
although it is traditionally assumed to have developed with the advent of
In contrast to the nation-state, with its
monopoly on legislation, the plurinational character of African societies
led them to establish two legislative areas within the constitution of the
multinational state. The state is responsible for general legislation, and
the national or ethnic area for specific legislation on land-ownership,
inheritance, registration of births and deaths and so on. An individual
basks in genuine pluralism of law, depending on the area of law that is
relevant, as well as the kind of activity he pursues in it and the status he
African law must therefore be rescued from
the non-law or "customary" law to which it has been relegated
because colonialism made it mimic other systems, and pluralism of law must
be restored. The African Charter on Human Rights tried to reflect this
special feature by including in its title the concept of "peoples’
rights"; but it failed to define the substance of those rights. The
post-colonial state has thus retained absolute sovereignty, and peoples have
been deprived of their own means of subsistence: the Ogoni people of the
Niger Delta, for instance, Nigeria’s oil-producing region, or the Dioula
people of Casamance who are rebelling against the Senegalese state.
Furthermore, in this model of a
multinational state, the rights of minorities cannot be enforced against the
rights of the majority. The state and the nations that make it up would have
to respect the principles of equality and the right to be different, in
order to achieve a common destiny. In return, these nations automatically
enjoy the same rights and duties based on "founder rights",
including the right to language, religion, culture and nationality.
Consequently, the issue of minority rights is without political foundation
in a multinational state.
A kind of integral federalism is thus
emerging and, in it, power is allocated on the basis of a threefold
federation of nations, citizens and localities. It operates on the premise
that the state acts on behalf of several nations, scattered over a number of
localities. In that sense, authority and political action can be exercised
rationally and effectively only if power is accorded first by reference to
nations and citizens, and only then by territory. In fact, the tribal
districts, communes and autonomous provinces are politically significant
only because they are the cradles of the nations and citizens concerned -
the founders of the political system.
A major new feature of integral federalism
is the transformation of these sub-ethnic groups into jointly-managed
political areas that channel a mix of peoples towards a shared destiny, so
avoiding any form of ethnic cleansing. The territorial federalism of the
nation-state relies on the fundamental principle that since the nation is a
single, indivisible entity, effective exercise of political authority
depends on it being applied to the whole of the territory over which the
population is dispersed. But integral federalism requires that power be
structured according to the political division of the territory: into
cantons, communes, federate state and so on.
More than just territory
A federation of localities implies moving
beyond the European notion of "territory" and investing in the
African concept of an area perceived as a framework for living. It contains
networks, forms of interchange and memories that bind people to their
locality and their environment. Often there is no correlation between
political and socio-cultural area (3). A new social pact is vital if the
multinational state is to be founded on the dual consent of nations and
citizens, thereby reconciling citizenship (individualism) and
multinationality (community) as two sources of state legitimization.
This is the principle of multinationality
(4). Defined as the political area in which a new democratic pact is founded
and mediated, it is legally binding on each of the nations and the state.
Strict respect for equality and the right to be different pave the way to a
common destiny. It is a different way of experiencing the state, in which
political unity and national unity are not one and the same
Thus defined, the multination mobilizes two
principles. The first is that nations and citizens are doubly representative
as separate entities and, the second is that sovereignty can be divided or
shared. Shared internally for the benefit of the nations and citizens, or
externally for the benefit of the sovereign states. Examples of that are the
economic and political integration in the European Union or the Economic
Community of West African States (Ecowas), and, in future, among the states
of southern Africa.
The multination means new political rights:
the right to exist, to vote, to resist oppression, to ancestral lands, to a
share in wealth and so on. This process of "republicanising"
traditional power uses a series of mechanisms to reconcile the traditional
and the modern. The local tribal authority (government and assembly),
designated the basic local community, is restored, and above it come the
autonomous commune and region. The tribal district is accorded powers in
regard to the registration of births and deaths, primary health care, basic
education, rural development and the establishment of voting rights for
nations, enabling them to appoint their own representatives in the bicameral
assemblies, at communal, regional and federal level.
That right to vote is exercised by
representatives freely chosen by each village community, from among the
professional classes on the basis of a specific electoral college. Political
parties no longer have a monopoly on political activity, and the tribal
government can mobilise the abilities of all citizens. That reform does not
call into question either the state’s internal and external frontiers, or
the balkanization of nations by the Berlin Conference (1878).
Unlike the nation-state, the multinational
state does not take over citizens; citizens themselves appoint and dismiss
governments according to commonly-accepted rules. The reversal of this
dialectic relationship means that there are different forms of citizenship:
single citizenship in a federal multinational state and dual citizenship in
a confederal multinational state where it replaces the usual dual
nationality. Citizenship of the EU, as defined in Article 8 of the
Maastricht treaty, is based on that same approach.
In a radical departure from the traditional
approach, a constitution based on the peoples - a "demotic" (5) or
pluralist constitution - reforms the legal infrastructure because it takes
account of the pluralism of society in addition to the multi-party system.
The different elements in heterogeneous societies are given back their
status as peoples or nations - a distinctive political and legal reality of
the multinational state. Despite being straitjacketed into political
entities carved out by colonialism, the mixed population groups continue to
assert their identity. They do not present a unified and homogenised body
within a contrived state-based nation, but reflect a diversity of
sociological nations in search of the state for all peoples, if not all
The purpose of a multinational state’s
constitution is not just to accord status to the authorities and to
citizens. Above all, it offers sociological or ethnic nations a political
and legal status, allowing them to establish their inalienable right to
legitimate the state and exercise power on the same basis as citizens.
In that sense, the constitution will
establish - for the first time in post-colonial Africa - the legal status of
a state that reflects, in terms of its democratic nature, its law, its
history and its culture, the social logic of the plurinational societies
that lend it substance and meaning.
In traditional societies, the fallibility of
majorities is one of the principle rules of governance. Reintroducing that
should act as a check on western-style democracy that gives power to the
majority. The aim is to make everyone a winner instead of having winners and
losers. That provides a form of democracy in which power-sharing reflects
the actual balance of power, established at the ballot box. The majority
makes great gains, but the minority makes some gains too. The aim is not to
prevent an elected majority from governing but to separate out the power to
govern and the power to control the administration of government. The
majority exercises power and the parliamentary opposition monitors the
exercise of that power.
For example, in the paradoxical societies of
Rwanda and Burundi, in which the sociological duality of Hutu majority and
sociological Tutsi minority seems insurmountable, civil peace is attained
through a variety of mechanisms. The Hutus, Tutsis and Twas must be
recognised as separate peoples. A new republican pact under which all state
powers are allocated proportionally among the three peoples must be drawn up
(within the civil service, government, diplomatic service, administration
etc.), so that an electoral victory by the political parties does not
threaten the right of each people to exist. Traditional authority must be
republicanised. And the inalienable right of each people to live in peace in
a multinational state of Rwanda and Burundi, within the existing frontiers,
must be proclaimed.
The nation-state advocates nationalism, but
the ideology of the multinational state is patriotic humanism. Humanist, it
acts as a cradle to protect and promote human rights, citizens’ rights and
peoples’ rights, regardless of their nationality, language, religion,
customs and so on. Even if mandated to defend nationalism as the ideology of
the nations of the country it administers, the multinational state is not
entitled to claim paternity over it. As a homeland, it represents the union
sacrée (7) of nations and citizens (federal state) and of the states (confederal
state). It is anchored in the soil by the local lands that are a source of
both memories and activities that embrace the living and the dead in a
The renaissance of a multicultural civil
society requires several levels of citizenship: political, economic, social
and cultural citizenship. Political citizenship is, admittedly, the
best-known, though it is still of paramount importance that citizens’
rights be positively laid down in black Africa.
But even before citizenship takes full
effect politically, it represents a societal link founded in solidarity, and
is the catalyst for co-existence. Sociability and solidarity present an
ongoing political challenge, involving economic, social and cultural issues.
Indeed, the creation of these new forms of citizenship vitally challenges
unemployment, the loss of identity and dislocation of the social link, civil
wars and so on - all scourges that undermine every kind of citizenship.
Given the problems of access to economic, social and cultural rights, all
countries are potential powder kegs. The traditional view of these forms of
citizenship, previously expressed exclusively by reference to the state,
therefore needs a radical re-think.
Three changes are required. The state’s
monopoly on the exclusive creation of economic, social and cultural rights
must be broken. Citizens, nations and the state must be placed at the heart
of the complex, by transforming economic, social and cultural rights into
human rights and citizens’ rights, rights of nations and of the state. All
sides must be given an active role in a three-way partnership comprising
state, citizens and nations, in order to establish the bases for a new
policy of wealth redistribution (8). The transformation of the subsistence
economy into an economy based on the accumulation of wealth must reconcile
economic efficiency and social cohesion, the mobility of capital and of
work, the benefits of regulation and free enterprise. In that way, citizens,
nations and the state will be able to re-assume responsibility for their own
history. The emergence of new political, economic, social and cultural
citizenships represents a vital challenge, given unemployment, loss of the
social link and identity, and the civil wars that often undermine them
The multinational state provides both a
political organization - at the level of plural-national society - and a
capacity for common action to tackle the issues and challenges of a shared
destiny. Democratic, its authority is accepted and shared in by the nations
and citizens. Post-national, it is based on the principle of unity within
diversity. It thus provides an area that unites nations, languages,
religions, cultures and localities, constants whose survival the state must
This definition of the problem helps
liberate the 10-year debate on Africa from the pseudo-democratization that
has muffled it. But even though there have been welcome signs of a bolder
approach, Ethiopia has merely transformed recognition of ethnic pluralism
into a method of political domination instead of democratic revolution. Its
fingers burned by the ethnic "tampering" of apartheid, South
Africa has lacked the clear-sightedness and courage to recognize the
plurinational nature of its society. And although some kingdoms have been
restored in Uganda, this show of traditional authority has served only as a
symbolic backdrop designed to legitimize the regime.
The problems of the multinational state
bring Africa’s special traits within the sphere of globalization - a
battlefield in which cultures clash head-on. Africa must make an effort
here, if it wants to survive and experience a revival during the third
millennium. In revenge for the past, Africa would could teach a lesson to a
Europe focused on heterogeneity - of nations, languages, religions,
standards, localities and so on - as a result of the crisis in the
nation-state and enlargement of the EU.
Democratic and post-national in nature, the
multinational state could provide the "ideal-standard" model for
the constitutional, political and conceptual transformation of the
pluralinational societies of the 21st century, be they sociological
nations (in the case of black Africa), or legal or state-based nations (the
EU, for example
Look at Africa this way, an Africa
without borders, yet a United Africa with an incredible coastline capable of
producing incredible economic commerce with all corners of the world. Indeed, a
United Africa could be a leading nation, economic power, and land of opportunity
for all citizens of the National Continent, free to travel their vast United New
Nation of opportunity for all .
The USA for USAfrica began in
After several e-mail's and postings to African government, media and
educational web sites and search engines, from 1996 – 1998 Regarding a call to
begin the grass roots of a formal United States of Africa, the baton was picked
by Khadafi of Libya and was covered at CNN.com in June of 1999.
The USA for USAfrica has never endorsed Khadafi for the leadership of the
first United States of Africa, but does acknowledge him as being the first
leader to react to the first e-mail's from the USA for USAfrica and get the
first world wide press and recognition regarding a United States of Africa in
the modern era as well as his bringing together the year 2000 conference on the
Let the next African generation be Happy, Healthy and Wise.
Help end the cycle of war, pain, famine and misery in this Millennium because it
has to end now, there will not be another Millennium for Africa if a United
States of Africa is not a reality...
Join the original chapter that stated the USA for USA movement. E-mail me if
you feel the formation of a USAfrica is the only hope for Africa by e-mailing me
From the First World to a New World...
We are nonprofit and lobby worldwide for the formation of a
United States of Africa.
The Founding Chapter of The USA for
We are suggesting in advance the national capital of the new USAfrica
be located in Ethiopia, because it was, as pointed out by the editor of Red
Herring Magazine, the only African nation that has never been colonized.
Let's hear your views on this
matter in the USA4USAfrica CoalitionChat
Posted by roboblogger on Thursday May 24 | Permalink
Bruce Edwards on the United States of Africa
“How can we unite continentally, if some of us
can't unite nationally? Shouldn't we first be engaging vigorously in
extinguishing the fires that are tearing some parts of Africa apart?”
Expeditions into the heart of darkness by the likes of David
Livingstone in the mid-1800s exposed Africa's wealth in resources and
sparked a major territorial battle between European imperial powers
scrambling ... via
Few South Africans are sensitised to the importance of Africa Day, which
is celebrated across the continent on May 25 every year.
South Africa began officially to schedule it after 1994.
It is a day that seeks to instill a commitment to the unity of the
continent and the integration of its people, two noble objectives
spearheaded by the first president of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah, which led to the
formation of the Organisation of African Unity 44 years ago.
Because of South Africa's late arrival in the fold of independent African
states, we need to double our efforts to raise awareness about the
significance of Africa Day among the population.
This is especially urgent in the case of the youth because the
responsibility of realising the dream of a united Africa lies on their
shoulders and those of their children.
With the liberation of South Africa and Namibia, the decrease in civil
wars and growing adoption of democratic rule, the major stumbling blocks to
a united Africa have been reduced substantially.
A national programme aimed at combating xenophobia would be the best
tribute to Africa Day in South Africa, as xenophobia has become the primary
adversary of the ideal of African unity.
Creating platforms where communities and foreigners can talk about their
fears and aspirations will go a long way to entrenching unity among
Other positive spin-offs from such interactions include the greater
understanding of the continent in its diversity and possible joint economic
ventures that will benefit people on the ground.
South Africans need to be proactive in making our brothers and sisters
from up north feel at home while isolating and exposing those who come with
Our government must initiate creative projects that will ensure our
people understand the plight of African refugees and that they, in turn,
respect the rules governing the society that has offered them shelter.
In his book Africa Must Unite, Nkrumah cautioned thus: "No single
part of Africa can be safe, or free to develop freely and independently,
while any part remains unliberated, or while Africa's vast economic
resources continue to be exploited by imperialist and neocolonial
We must march on towards the Union of African States with confidence in
the knowledge that united we stand, divided we fall.
What has to be understood here is that a united states of Africa
is now and has been a serious undertaking for decades starting with the pan-african
conference of 1900. Henry S. Williams, and W.E.B. Dubois were profoundly instrumental in bringing into focus the plight of
Africans to the world. Also up to the 5th Pan-African congress of
1945, where it was decided that Africa would be free of settler colonialism
instituted by the western european powers of that time.Therefore the solution to
the existing problems of Africa,
is continental unity. It will be what Africans
define it to be free of western or white control.
Which means no puppet dictators controlled from
washington d.c, No C.I.A inspired coup d'etat or
nullification of democracy (like the kind the world stood by and witnessed like
the removal of Patrice Lumumba and the Congolese parliment). And how about the
overthrow of Kwame Nkrumah the President of Ghana. That was also a concerted
effort of the C.I.A. with the complicity of
the traitors that were in opposition to a united
atates of Africa. A united states of africa pre-
supposes continental independence to solve their own problems by bringing all
the territories and wealth of Africa to bear on recontruction for real
planned development for the length and breath of
Africa. The solution must be an African one.The
works of Nkrumah and Toure', Malcolm X, Patrice Lumumba, Steve Biko, Marcus
Garvey, W.E.B. Dubois
Franz Fanon, Kwame Ture, Amilcar Cabral and other
great contributors to a United States of Africa
ia evident that Africa will be united whether any
one likes it or not(and I know you don't).So your article was incorrect.
The Role of African
always been the key to dissolving borders.The oral storytelling tradition was
the way in which us
Africans shared our news, preserved our history, ensured social cohesion and
stability, and charted our future. We should see the media in Africa today as
a continuation of our traditions. The African media is critical to fostering
regional integration because it can enable the sharing of knowledge to people
in different countries who are linked by common problems and common goals. New
technologies like digital satellite radio can turn local content into regional
programming. By its very nature, the Internet renders borders defunct, by
providing a space for information sharing and dialogue that can unite people
from different parts of the continent and the world. With advent of New Media,
everyone -- from local communities to national publishers -- can share their
news, views and issues with a wider audience. As the space for communication
grows, so to do channels for raising awareness about the value-added of
regional integration in all its forms. As more and more Africans become part
of the communication loop, regional integration truly becomes a reality."
Peter da Costa Media Specialst
Contribution of economic integration to
the unification of Africa
"For about three decades following the
wave of independence in the early 1960’s, Africa’s most advocated cause in
continental forums has been the liberation of Africa from any form of
political colonization, although development had always been on top of the
agenda of the Organisation of African Unity. With the advent of an independent
Namibia in 1990, no territory of Africa was any longer under external
domination. Yet the unification of the continent has a long way to go. What
can Africa’s economic integration contribute to this process?
As evidenced in the case of Europe, economic
integration helps create a homogenous space and, to some extent, equalize
living conditions. These appear to be prerequisites for a dialogue on the
harmonization of political stands. Indeed, an economic space that is
physically integrated; where goods and services move speedily and smoothly;
where, besides, the mobility of factors (manpower, capital, energy, inputs) is
not subjected to hindrances; where, finally, macroeconomic policies are
harmonized, is likely to offer equal opportunities to all. Such a high degree
of economic integration is not sustainable without a policy dialogue on issues
that, at first, may not fall squarely under economic field; peace and
security, defense, diplomacy etc.
In the case of Africa, it can be safely stated
that, once the continent has achieved a significantly advanced degree of
economic integration, its political unification will be greatly facilitated.
It appears difficult to conceive a united Africa without strong economic links
among countries of the continent."
Economic Affairs Expert, ECA
Actualising the United States of Africa Dream
28/05/2007 - Posted on the The Statesman- Ghana newspaper
President Kufuor, Chairman of the African Union, in concluding his Africa
Day speech observed the following: “All these efforts will bear ready and
abundant fruit only if we start with deepening the partnership arrangements
among ourselves as Africans before we go out as a continent to access what
others can bring to support our efforts. Fortunately, there is a growing
recognition among us today of the need to provide our union with a stronger
continental machinery in order to work on agreed strategic areas of focus,
including a common understanding of continental integration and the
constraints against such an integration process. We therefore look
forward to the July 2007 Summit in Accra dedicated to the “Grand Debate on
Union Government” which, hopefully, will help us identify the strategic
goals, objectives and actions that will help our embattled continent to gain
its rightful and dignified place in the globalised world.”
Yet, the news that the Accra summit (25 June - 6 July) will be the “Grand
Debate on Union Government” may not necessarily be encouraging. Debates we
have had plenty. Declarations, decisions, protocols, agreements, treaties, we
have signed many.
Our main difficulty has been in implementation, having the will,
structures, personnel and discipline to realise our goals. So, before we can
get excited about July’s grand debate we must first examine how the AU has
managed to implement its own time table to date.
The African Union has set for itself the ambition of building, by the year
2025: “A united and integrated Africa; an Africa imbued with the ideals of
justice and peace; an inter-dependent and virile Africa determined to map for
itself an ambitious strategy; an Africa underpinned by political, economic,
social and cultural integration which would restore to Pan-Africanism its full
meaning; an Africa able to make the best of its human and material resources,
and keen to ensure the progress and prosperity of its citizens by taking
advantage of the opportunities offered by a globalised world; an Africa
engaged in promoting its values in a world rich in its disparities”.
The fundamental vision is, therefore, to “build an integrated, prosperous
and peaceful Africa, an Africa driven and managed by its own citizen and
representing a dynamic force in the international arena.”
The Constitutive Act of 2002 sets up and mandates certain institutions to
facilitate the realisation of this vision: the Commission serves as the engine
of the Union; Member States as the political project managers; the Pan-African
Parliament and ECOSOCC as democratic control and monitoring organs; the
Regional Economic Communities are viewed as the main pillars or building
blocks of the Union; the Court of Justice, like that of the EU, is envisioned,
once established, to serve as the judicial and arbitration body, especially on
commercial cases and harmonisation rules; and the African Court of Human and
Peoples” Rights to operate like Europe’s ECHRJ.
African leaders fully recognise that the success of the African Union will,
to a large extent, “depend on effective understanding and collaboration
between these various organs, as well as on respect for their individual roles
The Union further recognises that it would not be able to garner the
necessary political consensus for accomplishment of its mandate, unless it has
in place an appropriate governance tool. The question then to ask is how well
has the Union so far done to ensure the tools are in place?
It has over the last three years been pursuing a short-term strategy. The
strategy, which spans 2004-2007 has the objective to consolidate the
institutional pillars of integration, build the human network and forge a
network of relations for the Continent. In our view, before ordinary Africans
can begin to believe that the ‘grand debate’ in Accra would not be just
another talk shop, they must be told how far the Union has gone with this
short-term strategy which ends this year.
Africans are right to be sceptical. Yet, Africans know that the medium term
goal of converging all the regional economic communities between 2008 and 2015
and the long term goal of the continent’s integration by 2025-2030 are all
achievable. What we want to know is if our leaders have shown by their deeds
that they also share this belief.